Obesity has become a foremost health problem. More than half of US adults are overweight or obese. This has been due to sedentary lifestyles, increased intake of refined carbohydrates, and fat-rich diets. Obese women are particularly susceptible to a variety of health risks including cancer, especially cancers of the breast, endometrium, and colon. Bariatric surgery appears to be a viable option for the treatment of severe obesity. As the role of surgery in the management of this condition becomes increasingly frequent, it is important for gynecological oncologists to recognize the potential for gynecological malignancies in this patient population.