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Dental Caries and Periodontal Disease in Children and Adolescents with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Case–Control Study

Koutsochristou, Vassiliki DDS*; Zellos, Aglaia MD*; Dimakou, Konstantina MD*; Panayotou, Ioanna MD*; Siahanidou, Sultana MD*; Roma-Giannikou, Eleftheria MD*; Tsami, Alexandra DDS

doi: 10.1097/MIB.0000000000000452
Original Clinical Articles

Background: Previous reports have demonstrated a higher prevalence of dental caries and periodontal disease in adults with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but similar data in children and adolescents do not exist. The aim of the study was to evaluate the status of dental caries, oral hygiene, gingival status and periodontal treatment needs of children with IBD.

Methods: In this case–control study, 55 children on remission from a single outpatient IBD clinic, aged 4 to 18 years (12.27 ± 3.67 yr) and 55 matched systemically healthy controls of a dental practice were assessed prospectively. The evaluation included medical history, dental questionnaire in both groups, and previous and current medical therapy of children with IBD. Additionally, the decayed, missing, and filled tooth (dmf-t or DMF-T), simplified gingival, plaque control record and community periodontal treatment needs indices were evaluated.

Results: Children with IBD compared with controls had a statistically significant (P < 0.001) higher dmf-t (2.95 versus 0.91) or DMF-T (5.81 versus 2.04) index and a higher gingival inflammation (simplified gingival, 40% versus 24%) although the respectively dental plaque index showed no significant difference (plaque control record, 42% versus 41%). Also, the community periodontal treatment needs was significantly higher compared with controls (P < 0.001); most of the patients with IBD needed treatment of gingivitis (47% versus 4%), and none of them had healthy periodontium (0% versus 69%).

Conclusions: The results of this case–control study demonstrate a higher frequency of dental caries, more clinical signs of gingival inflammation, and increased periodontal treatment needs in children and adolescents with IBD despite similar oral hygiene status.

Article first published online 15 May 2015.

*First Department of Pediatrics, University of Athens School of Medicine, Athens, Greece; and

Department of Periodontology, University of Athens Dental School, Athens, Greece.

Reprints: Aglaia Zellos, MD, First Department of Pediatrics, University of Athens School of Medicine, Aghia Sofia Children's Hospital, Thivon and Levadias Street, 11527 Athens, Greece (e-mail:

The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.

Received March 02, 2015

Accepted March 24, 2015

© Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.
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