Background: Autophagy and regulation of IL-23 signaling pathways have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD). We studied the mode of inheritance and reviewed the association of 2 polymorphic variants of ATG16L1 and IL23R with CD.
Methods: We searched the PubMed and ISI Web of Science databases (up to May 2014) for pertinent articles. We included all studies that had a case–control design, with cases having CD and controls being healthy and reported full genotype frequencies for the ATG16L1 and/or IL23R variant of interest. We quantified the relative genetic risk using the model-free approach of the generalized odds ratio metric (ORG) and reported 95% precision estimates. Also, we explored the mode of inheritance using the degree of dominance h-index.
Results: Fifty-one studies fulfilled these requirements and were included in the analysis. These studies involved 12,762 patients and 16,735 controls evaluating the association of ATG16L1 (rs2241880 p.Thr300Ala) and 8110 patients and 11,900 controls evaluating the association of IL23R (rs11209026 p.Arg381Gln) with CD. The ATG16L1 variant rs2241880 was associated with increased susceptibility to CD (combined ORG = 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.29–1.48) and a nondominant mode of inheritance (suggesting that the effect of heterozygosity lies exactly in the middle of extreme homozygotes, h = 0). The IL23R variant rs11209026 was associated with significant protection (ORG = 0.46; 95% confidence interval, 0.41–0.53) and a recessive mode of inheritance, indicating that the effect of a heterozygous genotype would lie close to the wild-type homozygous genotype. In subgroup analysis, the significant effects persisted across Caucasian ancestry studies and pediatric populations but were lacking across studies in Asian populations.
Conclusions: The ATG16L1 variant rs2241880 was associated with 38% increase in the risk for CD for higher mutational load, whereas IL23R variant rs11209026 decreased the risk by 54% for higher mutational load. The mode of inheritance for ATG16L1 variant demonstrated perfect additivity for genetic risk, whereas it showed recessiveness for the IL23R variant. This analysis permits risk stratification for CD based on the mutational status and highlight the need for additional studies in certain populations.
Article first published online 3 March 2015.
Infectious Diseases Division, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.
Reprints: Eleftherios Mylonakis, MD, PhD, Infectious Diseases Division, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Rhode Island Hospital, 593 Eddy Street, POB, 3rd Floor, Suite 328/330, Providence, RI 02903 (e-mail: email@example.com).
The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.
Received October 17, 2014
Accepted November 14, 2014