Background: Bone loss in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with ostomy has not been systemically studied. The aims of the study were to evaluate the frequency, risk factors, and sequelae of bone loss in patients with IBD and stomas and to monitor the change in bone mineral density (BMD) over time after ostomy.
Methods: A total of 126 patients met the inclusion criteria (i.e., those with IBD diagnosis and stoma), including ileostomy (N = 120), colostomy (N = 3), and jejunostomy (N = 3). BMD was measured on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Patients were classified as having normal or low BMD based on the International Society for Clinical Densitometry criteria. Thirty-two demographic and clinical variables were evaluated with logistic regression models.
Results: At a median of 6.6 years (interquartile range, 2–18.7 yr) after stoma, 37 (29.4%) patients had a low BMD. On univariate analysis, there were no significant differences between the normal and low BMD groups in the following variables: gender, race, age at diagnosis of IBD, prevalence of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, age at ostomy, duration from diagnosis to DEXA and from ostomy to DEXA, menopausal age, diabetes, hypothyroidism, renal stones, short bowel syndrome, history of smoking or excessive alcohol use, family history of IBD or osteoporosis, daily calcium and vitamin D supplement, estrogen replacement, and steroid use. Body mass index was significantly lower in the low BMD group than the normal BMD group (23.3 ± 5.5 versus 26.0 ± 5.2, P = 0.013). Fragility fracture occurred in 8 (21.6%) patients in low BMD group and 4 (4.5%) patients in normal BMD group (P = 0.006). In a multivariate analysis, low body mass index was the only covariate-adjusted factor associated with low BMD. In patients with multiple DEXA scans available over time after ostomy, hip BMD was found to improve marginally, and the lumbar and femoral BMD remained stable.
Conclusions: Low BMD was common in patients with IBD after ostomy, largely based on the findings in patients with CD with ileostomy. Fragility fracture was 5 times more frequent in patients with ostomy with low BMD compared with those with normal BMD. The low BMD was associated with a low body mass index. Screening and surveillance of BMD should routinely be performed, particularly in these patients at risk. Bone mass tends to stabilize over time after stoma.
Article first published online 27 December 2013
Department of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Digestive Disease Institute, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio.
Reprints: Bo Shen, MD, Department of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Desk A 30, Digestive Disease Institute, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195 (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).
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The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.
Received August 19, 2013
Accepted November 14, 2013