Background: Easily measured and clinically useful biomarkers for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are required to advance patient care. We previously reported that the agalactosyl fraction among fucosylated IgG oligosaccharides is increased in IBD, especially Crohn's disease (CD). The present study aimed to establish a simple detection system for aberrant glycosylated IgG based on lectin–oligosaccharide interactions.
Methods: Lectins with higher affinity to serum IgG from IBD patients than healthy volunteers (HV) were screened by lectin microarray. Binding of selected lectins to agalactosyl IgG was definitively confirmed using step-by-step glycosidase treatment. Using the selected lectins, a lectin-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system was established and its clinical utility was investigated in a total of 410 (249 Japanese and 161 American) IBD patients, disease controls, and HVs.
Results: Agaricus bisporus Agglutinin (ABA) and Griffonia simplicifolia Lectin-II (GSL-II) had higher affinity for serum agalactosyl IgG from IBD patients, especially those with CD, compared to HV. Agalactosyl IgG levels measured by a lectin-enzyme immunoassay (EIA) with ABA or GSL-II were significantly increased in CD compared with HV and disease controls. Agalactosyl IgG levels significantly correlated with disease activity, showed higher predictability of therapeutic outcomes for CD than C-reactive protein levels, and exhibited higher specificity for diagnosing IBD in combination with anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody (ASCA). Validation analysis showed that agalactosyl IgG levels were significantly increased in Japanese and American CD patients.
Conclusions: A lectin-EIA for agalactosyl IgG is a novel biomarker for IBD, especially in patients with CD.