Background:: The aims of this study were to explore the influences of familial, maternal, and paternal inflammatory disease (IBD) on perinatal outcomes in the offspring and the risk for development of IBD related to perinatal factors.
Methods:: Eighty‐five patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and 86 with ulcerative colitis (UC) were included from a population‐based incidence study enrolled 1990–1994. Family and birth records of these patients, as well as of their 207 infants, were drawn from the Norwegian Medical Birth Registry, established in 1967, and compared with the national birth cohort from the same period.
Results:: Maternal (odds ratio [OR] = 2.15, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.36, 3.39) and paternal IBD (OR = 3.02, 95% CI: 1.82, 5.01) influenced the risk of preterm birth (<37 weeks), which further increased if the affected parents had a first‐degree relative with IBD (OR = 4.29, 95% CI: 1.59, 11.63). Maternal CD was associated with lower birth weight in the offspring (crude difference: 271.79 g, 95% CI: 87.83, 455.77, versus controls). Maternal UC increased the risk of perinatal bacterial infection in the offspring (OR = 6.03, 95% CI: 2.03, 17.91). IBD patients (2.3%) were less likely to be delivered by cesarean section than controls (8.1%) (OR = 0.27, CI: 95%: 0.10, 0.73).
Conclusions:: Familial, maternal, and paternal IBD were linked to preterm birth, which might be explained by genetic mechanisms. The present protective effect of cesarean sections needs further clarification in future studies. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2009