Identifying Urinary Incontinence in the Home Setting: Part 1—Assessment, Diagnosis, and Strategies to Treat Incontinence
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CE TEST QUESTIONS
GENERAL PURPOSE: To identify and describe treatment techniques for urinary incontinence (UI).
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: After reading this article and taking this test, you should be able to:
1. Summarize the prevalence and impact of urinary incontinence.
2. Outline the etiology and types of urinary incontinence.
3. Plan the appropriate interventions for patients who have urinary incontinence.
1. The prevalence of UI among women is
2. UI is
a. an expected consequence of aging.
b. a significant contributory factor to falls.
c. an expected consequence of institutionalization.
d. a significant contributory factor to renal failure.
3. Compared with $3.8 billion for institutionalized women, the costs of UI for community-dwelling women, according to Wilson and colleagues, were
a. $5.1 billion.
b. $6.3 billion.
c. $7.5 billion.
d. $8.6 billion.
4. What percentage of the costs for UI is for medical services that Medicare pays?
a. Nearly one third
b. About half
c. Nearly two thirds
d. About three quarters
5. Most of the costs related to incontinence are for
a. medical testing.
b. protective garments.
d. laundering clothing.
6. UI is defined as
a. the total loss of urine at least once per day.
b. a consistent inability to control the flow of urine.
c. the total loss of urine at least twice per week.
d. any involuntary loss of urine.
7. The involuntary leakage of urine with effort or exertion or with sneezing and coughing defines which type of UI?
8. The involuntary leakage of urine accompanied by or immediately preceded by a sudden compelling desire to pass urine defines which type of UI?
9. A common cause of stress UI is
a. hyperreflexive bladder.
b. increased intra-abdominal pressure.
c. reduced bladder capacity.
d. pelvic floor muscle weakness.
10. A common cause of urge UI is
a. chronic coughing.
b. detrusor instability.
c. pelvic organ prolapse.
d. chronic constipation.
11. Functional incontinence is the loss of urine due to
a. decreased mobility.
b. sphincter weakness.
c. urethral laxity.
d. reduced bladder capacity.
12. Obesity is a major risk factor for UI because it causes
a. reduced vascularity to the pelvic floor muscles.
b. chronically increased intra-abdominal pressure.
c. progressively worsening sphincter muscle weakness.
d. persistent coughing and respiratory infections.
13. Which of the following is an appropriate initial approach to treating UI?
a. Diet and fluid management
b. Pharmacologic therapy
c. Surgical interventions
d. Protective clothing
14. According to Hashim and Abrams, an inexpensive, noninvasive way to help control the symptoms of overactive bladder is to decrease fluid intake by
15. The goal for normal voiding patterns is to achieve
a. three to four daytime voids and only one nighttime void.
b. three to four daytime voids and one or two nighttime voids.
c. five to seven daytime voids and no nighttime voids.
d. five to seven daytime voids and no more than one to two nighttime voids.
16. Treatment of functional incontinence that has no genitourinary pathology should focus on
a. improving mobility.
b. reducing hydration.
c. strengthening pelvic muscles.
d. eliminating bladder irritants.
17. Risk factors for UI include all the following except
a. increased estrogen.
c. tobacco use.
18. Which of these items is a potential bladder irritant?
b. Vitamin E
d. Artificial sweeteners