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Home Healthcare Nurse:
doi: 10.1097/01.NHH.0000316699.69267.96
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Moving Beyond the Anecdotal: Identifying the Need for Evidence‐Based Research in Hospice and Palliative Care

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Moving Beyond the Anecdotal: Identifying the Need for Evidence-Based Research in Hospice and Palliative Care


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To explore for registered professional nurses an evaluation of key components in the successful conduct of interdisciplinary research and integration in clinical settings.


After reading this article and taking this test, you should be able to:

1. Outline the basic information defining and describing evidence-based practice.

2. List the issues involved with conducting research with terminally ill patients.

3. Summarize the information presented here that is helpful in planning palliative care research efforts.

1. Evidence-based practice is a concept that

a. is largely based on expert opinion.

b. still not widely accepted as optimal.

c. extends back to the mid-19th century.

d. has only moderate relevance to nursing today.

2. The underlying guiding principle of evidence-based medicine is that it is the conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence in

a. establishing standard practice guidelines.

b. promoting optimal outcomes of care.

c. strengthening the overall image of healthcare.

d. making decisions about the care of individual patients.

3. According to Rutledge and Grant, evidence-based practice integrates the best scientific evidence with several components, including

a. patients' life expectancy.

b. knowledge of psychosocial issues.

c. ethical principles.

d. continuous quality improvement.

4. According to DePalma, evidence-based practice is a total process that begins with

a. determining patients' care preferences.

b. creating individualized plans of care.

c. knowing what clinical questions to ask.

d. critically appraising the evidence for validity.

5. The final aspect of the evidence-based practice process is

a. evaluation of the effectiveness of care.

b. application of the evidence to practice.

c. consideration of the patient's unique needs.

d. assurance of favorable patient outcomes.

6. Most stakeholders in today's healthcare arena focus on

a. access to care.

b. patient outcome data.

c. costs of care.

d. accountability for value.

7. According to Haynes and Haines, the most definitive way to assess the success of an intervention in palliative care is to

a. discern when the physical burden becomes greater than the potential benefits.

b. determine which drugs or treatment options best improve the dying experience.

c. benchmark health outcomes from the patients' point of view.

d. evaluate the quality of life that follows from the administered care.

8. Clinicians limiting access of researchers to patients is often referred to as

a. benchmarking.

b. advocating.

c. gatekeeping.

d. screening.

9. Patents with life-limiting diseases should be allowed to participate in research as long as

a. they are not in physical distress.

b. their caregivers are in agreement.

c. they feel that they can contribute.

d. their ability to consent is not impaired.

10. Selective restriction of terminally ill patents from research is most likely to result in

a. clinician miscommunication.

b. biased samples.

c. dissatisfaction with care.

d. spiritual distress.

11. According to Emanuel and colleagues, one of the eight important dimensions of the end-of-life experience documented by seriously ill patients is

a. family dynamics.

b. self-awareness.

c. physical comfort.

d. special connectedness.

12. Providing information that would most benefit others is a concept referred to as

a. altruism.

b. advocacy.

c. idealism.

d. self-sacrifice.

13. According to the article, researchers should look to clinicians for

a. assistance with data collection.

b. encouragement of patients to participate.

c. knowledge about patients' communication strategies.

d. input into methods of data analysis.

14. Which of the following establishes research projects and invites other organizations to join and contribute to the data being collected?

a. the National Consensus Project for Quality Palliative Care

b. the Population Based Research Network at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center

c. the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine at the University of Washington

d. the National Quality Forum's Framework and Preferred Practices for a Palliative Care and Hospice Care Quality Project

15. The National Consensus Project's practice guidelines were divided into eight domains, one of which is

a. caregiving needs.

b. advanced directives.

c. research implementation.

d. ethics and law.

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