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Retrospective Patient Dose Analysis of Ghanas First Direct Digital Radiography System

Inkoom, Stephen*; Togobo, James; Emi-Reynolds, Geoffrey*; Oddoye, Adrian; Ntiri, Theophilus Ofosu; Gyekye, Prince Kwabena*

Health Physics:
doi: 10.1097/HP.0b013e3182475a76

Abstract: The log file generated in the flat panel detector of a direct digital x-ray machine (General Electric, Haulun Medical Systems, Serial Number 8M0392) after x-ray exposure was used to acquire data regarding the entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) for some routine x-ray examinations. The data were collected for a minimum of 10 standard adult patients undergoing each examination considered. The mean ESAK were found to be 0.25, 0.33, 0.14, 7.33, 9.76, 7.38, and 6.86 mGy for skull AP and LAT, chest AP, lumbar spine AP and LAT, pelvis AP and abdomen AP series, respectively. The mean ESAK values recorded from this study show wide variations but were below diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) of the Commission of European Communities and also compare with other recommendations. The comparisons of this study’s dose levels with DRLs were undertaken as an approach to dose optimization. The study revealed that a dose audit of digital radiography systems is necessary because of the potential high doses one is likely to receive. Continuous dose evaluation in digital radiography is therefore encouraged in order to optimize doses to patients.

Health Phys. 103(2):133Y137; 2012

Author Information

*Radiation Protection Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P. O. Box LG 80 Legon, Accra-Ghana; †Akai House Clinic, X-ray Department P. O. Box OS 01952, Osu, Accra-Ghana.

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

For correspondence contact: Stephen Inkoom, Radiation Protection Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P. O. Box LG 80 Legon, Accra-Ghana, or email at

(Manuscript accepted 19 December 2011)

©2012Health Physics Society