Abstract: Cutaneous radiation syndrome caused by local high dose irradiation is characterized by delayed outcome and incomplete healing. Recent therapeutic management of accidentally irradiated burn patients has suggested the benefit of local cellular therapy using mesenchymal stem cell grafting. According to the proposed strategy of early treatment, large amounts of stem cells would be necessary in the days following exposure and hospitalization, which would require allogeneic stem cells banking. In this context, the authors compared the benefit of local autologous and allogeneic adipocyte-derived stem cell injection in a large animal model. Minipigs were locally irradiated using a 60Co gamma source at a dose of 50 Gy and divided into three groups. Two groups were grafted with autologous (n = 5) or allogeneic (n = 5) adipocyte-derived stem cells four times after the radiation exposure, whereas the control group received the vehicle without cells (n = 8). A clinical score was elaborated to compare the efficiency of the three treatments. All controls exhibited local inflammatory injuries leading to a persistent painful necrosis, thus mimicking the clinical evolution in human victims. In the autologous adipocyte-derived stem cells group, skin healing without necrosis or uncontrollable pain was observed. In contrast, the clinical outcome was not significantly different in the adipocyte-derived stem cell allogeneic group when compared with controls. This study suggests that autologous adipocyte-derived stem cell grafting improves cutaneous radiation syndrome wound healing, whereas allogeneic adipocyte derived stem cells do not. Further studies will establish whether manipulation of allogeneic stem cells will improve their therapeutic potential.
Health Phys. 103(2):120– 126; 2012