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Hurtado, Jorge L.*; Lee, Choonsik*; Lodwick, Daniel*; Goede, Timothy*; Williams, Jonathan L.; Bolch, Wesley E.

Health Physics:
doi: 10.1097/HP.0b013e318235163f

Abstract: Currently, two classes of computational phantoms have been developed for dosimetry calculation: (1) stylized (or mathematical) and (2) voxel (or tomographic) phantoms describing human anatomy through mathematical surface equations and 3D voxel matrices, respectively. Mathematical surface equations in stylized phantoms are flexible, but the resulting anatomy is not as realistic. Voxel phantoms display far better anatomical realism, but they are limited in terms of their ability to alter organ shape, position, and depth, as well as body posture. A new class of computational phantoms called hybrid phantoms takes advantage of the best features of stylized and voxel phantoms—flexibility and anatomical realism, respectively. In the current study, hybrid computational phantoms representing the adult male and female reference anatomy and anthropometry are presented. These phantoms serve as the starting framework for creating patient or worker sculpted whole-body phantoms for retrospective dose reconstruction. Contours of major organs and tissues were converted or segmented from computed tomography images of a 36-y-old Korean volunteer and a 25-y-old U.S. female patient, respectively, with supplemental high-resolution CT images of the cranium. Polygon mesh models for the major organs and tissues were reconstructed and imported into Rhinoceros™ for non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surface modeling. The resulting NURBS/polygon mesh models representing body contour and internal anatomy were matched to anthropometric data and reference organ mass data provided by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and International Commission on Radiation Protection, respectively. Finally, two hybrid adult male and female phantoms were completed where a total of eight anthropometric data categories were matched to standard values within 4% and organ volumes matched to ICRP data within 1% with the exception of total skin. The hybrid phantoms were voxelized from the NURBS phantoms at resolutions of 0.158 × 0.158 × 0.158 cm3 and 0.126 × 0.126 × 0.126 cm3 for the male and female, respectively. To highlight the flexibility of the hybrid phantoms, graphical displays are given of (1) underweight and overweight adult male phantoms, (2) a sitting position for the adult female phantom, and (3) extraction and higher-resolution voxelization of the small intestine for localized dosimetry of mucosal and stem cell layers. These phantoms are used to model radioactively contaminated individuals and to then assess time-dependent detector count rate thresholds corresponding to 50, 250, and 500 mSv effective dose, as might be needed during in-field radiological triage by first responders or first receivers.

Author Information

*Department of Nuclear & Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611; †Department of Radiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611; ‡Departments of Nuclear & Radiological and Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611.

This work was supported by the TKC Integration Services, Inc.

For correspondence contact: Wesley E. Bolch, Advanced Laboratory for Radiation Dosimetry Studies (ALRADS), Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-8300, or email at

(Manuscript accepted 29 August 2011)

© 2012 by the Health Physics Society