In 2007, a nationwide survey was conducted to determine the frequency of CT procedures in Japan in order to compare the current use of CT among developed countries. The frequency of adult and pediatric CT scans was estimated using a model based on the results of the survey. Survey questionnaires were sent to 2,266 CT facilities: 1,068 government hospitals and 1,198 other hospitals and non-hospital medical centers. The questionnaire requested information including the number of beds, outpatients per day, type of CT scanner, various body regions scanned, and the number of scans performed. The results of the study indicate that the number of CT procedures was closely correlated with the number of hospital beds. The authors estimate that approximately 20.5 million procedures were performed in 2005 and 21.2 million in 2006. The number of pediatric CT procedures was calculated by multiplying the total number of CT procedures by the estimated fraction of pediatric (0–15 y) CT procedures. Annual pediatric CT procedures were estimated to have been approximately 580,000 in 2005 and 600,000 in 2006. The present study indicates that the number of procedures per thousand of population, 166 for total CT and 32–34 for pediatric CT, is lower in Japan than in the U.S.