A biokinetic model of the systemic distribution of americium in the beagle dog is presented. The model is based on a previous biokinetic model of plutonium. The data sets used for the development of the model were the measurements of excreted activity (urine and feces) and organ burdens (skeleton, liver, and other soft tissues) for different levels of initial injected activity. In developing the model, the compartmental structure of the skeleton of the plutonium model was adopted, and only the numerical values of parameters were adapted. The model well describes the fractions of americium in the skeleton, liver, and soft tissues and the total fraction excreted in urine and feces. The tuning of the liver clearance parameter provides a realistic description of the change in the partitioning between liver and skeleton for different injection levels. The most significant features of the biokinetics and dosimetry of americium and plutonium in beagles are compared. The total fractions of the clearance to the skeleton and the liver are roughly equal to the value for plutonium, but the partitioning of americium between these organs is reversed with respect to the partitioning of plutonium. 241Am doses to liver and skeleton are similar to 239Pu doses, owing to some counteracting factors. For the highest injection level, the liver mass is dependent on the time post injection. For the skeletal tissues, the dose to the cortical endosteum by far exceeds the dose to the trabecular endosteum and the red marrow. The model provides the basis for statistical survival analyses and risk estimates.
* ENEA—Radiation Protection Institute, via dei Colli, 16 - 40136 Bologna, Italy; † Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe—HS/ÜM, Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany; ‡ University of Utah, Radiobiology Division, Department of Radiology, 2334 CAMT, 729 Arapeen Drive, Salt Lake City, UT 84108-1218.
For correspondence or reprints contact: A. Luciani, ENEA—Radiation Protection Institute, via dei Colli, 16 - 40136 Bologna, Italy, or email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
(Manuscript received 18 March 2005; revised manuscript received 5 September 2005, accepted 10 December 2005)