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Geographical Distribution of Radiation Risks in the Netherlands.

Janssen, Martien P. M.; Blaauboer, Roelf O.; Pruppers, Mathieu J. M.
Health Physics:
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Risk assessment of exposure to sources of radiation is an important tool for national governments in regulating radionuclide emissions and thus reducing radiation doses for the general public. For this reason radiation doses from sources throughout the Netherlands have been analyzed. For sources with well-defined locations and doses that were thought to vary significantly throughout the Netherlands, radiation dose maps were produced. Average dose values were calculated or derived from the literature for doses considered to be evenly distributed throughout the country or for which no information on the geographical distribution of dose was available. Emission, dispersion, and individual dose were modeled for each source using various pathways and exposure routes. Indoor radon and gamma radiation from building materials generate the highest dose values. The highest human induced radiation doses for industries of which the doses showed to be geographically distributed are found in the cement industry, elemental phosphorus production, phosphoric acid production, and iron and steel production. Radiation dose from some of these sources has a very local peak and decreases rapidly with distance. The elemental phosphorus production causes relatively high radiation doses throughout a large part of the Netherlands. Cumulation of doses from various sources occurs, but these are often masked by doses from a few large industries.

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