Dose-response relationships for alpha-radiation-induced lung cancers (adenocarcinoma, squamous carcinoma and small cell carcinoma) were developed by multifactorial analysis using data for Mayak nuclear enterprise workers chronically exposed by inhalation to 239Pu. The three most important lung cancer risk factors (smoking, plutonium incorporation, and external gamma irradiation), out of six factors previously identified, were used. Relative risks (odds ratios) were determined for 500 nuclear enterprise workers (162 cancer cases, 338 control) for different dose levels using a case-control study design and logistic regression. A threshold at about 3.7 kBq or 0.80 Gy was discovered for incorporated plutonium, which is satisfactorily described by linear-quadratic and quadratic models. Excess relative risk was 0.020 kBq-2 and 0.97 Gy-2. This quadratic function was mainly due to adenocarcinoma. A trend for decreasing risk was noted for the lowest levels of plutonium incorporation, near permissible level. No clear-cut dose-response relationship for lung cancer induction by chronic external gamma irradiation was obtained. Lung cancer induction by cigarette smoking had a linear dependence: smoking of one pack of papiroses (a type of Russian cigarette) per day for 5 y increases the lung cancer risk twofold. The effect was most clearly manifested for squamous-cell carcinoma.
(C)1997Health Physics Society