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Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation:
doi: 10.1097/HTR.0000000000000086
Original Articles

Trajectories of Sleep and Its Predictors in the First Year Following Traumatic Brain Injury

Chen, Pin-Yuan MD, PhD; Tsai, Pei-Shan PhD, RN; Chen, Ning-Hung MD; Chaung, Li-Pang MD; Lee, Cheng-Chi MD; Chen, Ching-Chang MD; Chiu, Hsiao-Ting BS; Lu, Yu-Jen MD; Wei, Kuo-Chen MD; Chiu, Hsiao-Yean PhD, RN

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Abstract

Objectives: To examine how sleep patterns change over the first year following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to determine whether specific demographic and disease characteristics predict the trajectories of sleep.

Design: Prospective study.

Participants: Fifty-three patients with first-ever mild to severe TBI.

Main Measurements: Sleep measured by actigraphy for 7 consecutive days in the first, third, sixth, and twelfth months following TBI: Chinese versions of Beck Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory-II (CBDI-II) measured at the same time points. Data were analyzed with a linear mixed model.

Results: Sleep efficiency (the ratio of sleep time to the total time spent in bed) showed a significant upward trend during the study period. Scores on the Chinese version of the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the CBDI-II as well as the use of analgesics significantly predicted the slope of change in sleep efficiency over time.

Conclusions: Poor sleep efficiency is a common symptom in the first year among patients with first-ever TBI. Healthcare providers should consider both mental health and pain issues when dealing with sleep complaints in patients with TBI.

Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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