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Insomnia in Patients With Traumatic Brain Injury: Frequency, Characteristics, and Risk Factors

Ouellet, Marie-Christine PhD; Beaulieu-Bonneau, Simon MPs; Morin, Charles M. PhD

Section Editor(s): Caplan, Bruce PhD, ABPP (CN, RP)

The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation: May-June 2006 - Volume 21 - Issue 3 - p 199–212
Original Article

Objectives To document the frequency of insomnia (according to DSM-IV and ICSD criteria), to describe its sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, and to identify potential predictors of insomnia in persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI).

Participants and procedure Four hundred fifty-two participants aged 16 years and older with minor to severe TBI answered a questionnaire pertaining to quality of sleep and fatigue.

Main outcome measures Proportion of participants fulfilling criteria for insomnia symptoms or syndrome. Validated measures of insomnia severity, fatigue level, and psychologic distress. Results of a logistic regression analysis.

Results Overall, 50.2% of the sample reported insomnia symptoms and 29.4% fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for an insomnia syndrome. For the latter participants, insomnia was a severe and chronic condition remaining untreated in almost 60% of cases. Risk factors associated with insomnia were milder TBIs, and higher levels of fatigue, depression, and pain.

Conclusion Insomnia is a prevalent condition after TBI requiring more clinical and scientific attention as it may have important repercussions on rehabilitation.

École de psychologie, Université Laval, Québec, Canada.

Preparation of this article was supported by a scholarship awarded to the first author by the Fonds de la Recherche en Santé du Québec.

Corresponding author: Marie-Christine Ouellet, PhD, École de psychologie, Université Laval, Pavillon Félix—Antoine-Savard, Québec, Québec, Canada G1K 7P4 (e-mail: marie-christine.ouellet.1@ulaval.ca).

© 2006 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.