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Health Care Management Review:
doi: 10.1097/HMR.0b013e3181abce2b
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Improving work environments in health care: Test of a theoretical framework

Rathert, Cheryl; Ishqaidef, Ghadir; May, Douglas R.

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Abstract

Background: In light of high levels of staff turnover and variability in the quality of health care, much attention is currently being paid to the health care work environment and how it potentially relates to staff, patient, and organizational outcomes. Although some attention has been paid to staffing variables, more attention must be paid to improving the work environment for patient care.

Purposes: The purpose of this study was to empirically explore a theoretical model linking the work environment in the health care setting and how it might relate to work engagement, organizational commitment, and patient safety. This study also explored how the work environment influences staff psychological safety, which has been show to influence several variables important in health care.

Methodology: Clinical care providers at a large metropolitan hospital were surveyed using a mail methodology. The overall response rate was 42%. This study analyzed perceptions of staff who provided direct care to patients.

Findings: Using structural equation modeling, we found that different dimensions of the work environment were related to different outcome variables. For example, a climate for continuous quality improvement was positively related to organizational commitment and patient safety, and psychological safety partially mediated these relationships. Patient-centered care was positively related to commitment but negatively related to engagement.

Practice Implications: Health care managers need to examine how organizational policies and practices are translated into the work environment and how these influence practices on the front lines of care. It appears that care provider perceptions of their work environments may be useful to consider for improvement efforts.

© 2009 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

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