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Committee Opinion No 705 Summary: Mental Health Disorders In Adolescents

doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000002153
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ABSTRACT: Mental health disorders in adolescence are a significant problem, relatively common, and amenable to treatment or intervention. Obstetrician–gynecologists who see adolescent patients are highly likely to see adolescents and young women who have one or more mental health disorders. Some of these disorders may interfere with a patient’s ability to understand or articulate her health concerns and appropriately adhere to recommended treatment. Some disorders or their treatments will affect the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis, causing anovulatory cycles and various menstrual disturbances. Adolescents with psychiatric disorders may be taking psychopharmacologic agents that can cause menstrual dysfunction and galactorrhea. Adolescents with mental illness often engage in acting-out behavior or substance use, which increases their risk of unsafe sexual behavior that may result in pregnancy or sexually transmitted infections. Pregnant adolescents who take psychopharmacologic agents present a special challenge in balancing the potential risks of fetal harm with the risks of inadequate treatment. Whether providing preventive women’s health care or specific obstetric or gynecologic treatment, the obstetrician–gynecologist has the opportunity to reduce morbidity and mortality from mental health disorders in adolescents by early identification, appropriate and timely referral, and care coordination. Although mental health disorders should be managed by mental health care professionals or appropriately trained primary care providers, the obstetrician–gynecologist can assist by managing the gynecologic adverse effects of psychiatric medications and providing effective contraception and regular screening for sexually transmitted infections. This Committee Opinion will provide basic information about common adolescent mental health disorders, focusing on specific implications for gynecologic and obstetric practice.

For a comprehensive overview of these recommendations, the full-text version of this Committee Opinion is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0000000000002160.

Copyright July 2017 by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, posted on the Internet, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission from the publisher.

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The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists 409 12th Street, SW, PO Box 96920, Washington, DC 20090-6920

Official Citation: Mental health disorders in adolescents. Committee Opinion No. 705. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Obstet Gynecol 2017;130:e32–41.

Committee on Adolescent Health Care: This Committee Opinion was developed by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists’ Committee on Adolescent Health Care in collaboration with committee liaison Richard R. Brookman, MD.

This information is designed as an educational resource to aid clinicians in providing obstetric and gynecologic care, and use of this information is voluntary. This information should not be considered as inclusive of all proper treatments or methods of care or as a statement of the standard of care. It is not intended to substitute for the independent professional judgment of the treating clinician. Variations in practice may be warranted when, in the reasonable judgment of the treating clinician, such course of action is indicated by the condition of the patient, limitations of available resources, or advances in knowledge or technology. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists reviews its publications regularly; however, its publications may not reflect the most recent evidence. Any updates to this document can be found on www.acog.org or by calling the ACOG Resource Center.

While ACOG makes every effort to present accurate and reliable information, this publication is provided “as is” without any warranty of accuracy, reliability, or otherwise, either express or implied. ACOG does not guarantee, warrant, or endorse the products or services of any firm, organization, or person. Neither ACOG nor its officers, directors, members, employees, or agents will be liable for any loss, damage, or claim with respect to any liabilities, including direct, special, indirect, or consequential damages, incurred in connection with this publication or reliance on the information presented.

Received May 31, 2017

Accepted May 31, 2017

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Recommendations and Conclusions

The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists makes the following recommendations and conclusions:

* At least one in five youth aged 9–17 years currently has a diagnosable mental health disorder that causes some degree of impairment; one in 10 has a disorder that causes significant impairment.

* The most common mental illnesses in adolescents are anxiety, mood, attention, and behavior disorders.

* Suicide is the second leading cause of death in young people aged 15–24 years.

* Obstetrician–gynecologists who see adolescent patients are highly likely to see adolescents and young women who have one or more mental health disorders.

* Adolescents with mental illness often engage in acting-out behavior or substance use, which increase their risk of unsafe sexual behavior that may result in pregnancy or sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

* Adolescents with psychiatric disorders may be taking psychopharmacologic agents that can cause menstrual dysfunction and galactorrhea.

* Pregnant adolescents who take psychopharmacologic agents present a special challenge in balancing the potential risks of fetal harm with the risks of inadequate treatment.

* During preventive care visits, all adolescents should be screened for any mental health disorder in a confidential setting (if allowed by the laws of that locality).

* The obstetrician–gynecologist has the opportunity to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with mental health disorders in adolescents by early identification, prompt referral, and care coordination.

© 2017 by The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.