Obstetrics & Gynecology:
Prevalence and Associated Factors of Female Sexual Dysfunction in Women With Endometriosis
Jia, Shuang-zheng PhD; Leng, Jin-hua MD; Sun, Peng-ran PhD; Lang, Jing-he MD
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science, and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, People's Republic of China.
Corresponding author: Jin-hua Leng, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing 100730, People's Republic of China; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Financial Disclosure The authors did not report any potential conflicts of interest.
Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81170548) and Key Project for Clinical Faculty Foundation, Ministry of Health, China (2010/H0406).
OBJECTIVE: The issue of female sexual function is often overlooked in women with endometriosis, especially in mainland China. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of female sexual dysfunction in endometriosis in China.
METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at a referral university hospital in Beijing, Peoples Republic of China from July 2011 to April 2012. Women were recruited among inpatients scheduled for laparoscopic surgery based on signs and symptoms suggestive of endometriosis. Before laparoscopy, a semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect demographic data and disease characteristics. The simplified Chinese version of the Female Sexual Function Index was used to assess sexual function.
RESULTS: A total of 111 consecutive women with histologically confirmed endometriosis were enrolled in this study. The prevalence of female sexual dysfunction was 73% for those with endometriosis. Univariable analysis identified three potential predictors of female sexual dysfunction: pelvic pain intensity; deep infiltrating endometriosis status; and revised American Society for Reproductive Medicine stages. Multivariable analysis showed that moderate-to-severe pelvic pain (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 3.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3–8.8) and revised American Society for Reproductive Medicine stage III or IV (adjusted OR 4.4, 95% CI 1.3–15.5) were associated with increased risk of having female sexual dysfunction.
CONCLUSION: Female sexual dysfunction is common in women with endometriosis, especially for those with severe pelvic pain and advanced stages of endometriosis.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II
Endometriosis is characterized by the presence of endometrial-like tissue outside of the uterus and is a chronic disease that serves as the major contributor to pelvic pain and infertility among women.1 Community-based surveys indicate that endometriosis affects 10–15% of all women and 30–50% of symptomatic women during their most sexually active years.2
Improving quality of life is one of the main goals for the treatment of endometriosis.3 Recently, considerable work has been performed to investigate the effect of endometriosis on the quality of life for women. However, the issue of sexual function, which is a major aspect of quality of life, has been poorly studied. Most studies that have explored this parameter have focused mainly on the prevalence of dyspareunia among women with endometriosis4,5 or have evaluated the effectiveness of medical therapies6,7 or surgical therapies for this condition.5,8,9 More than half of women with endometriosis experience dyspareunia during their entire sexual lives, especially those with involvement of the uterosacral ligament.4,5,10 This sexual pain experience may limit women's sexual activities, resulting in a reduction of self-esteem and a negative effect on relationships with partners.11 Furthermore, infertility and depression, which are highly prevalent in women with endometriosis, also are associated with the impairment of sexual function of women.12,13 Thus, a simplistic biometric approach evaluating dyspareunia alone is insufficient for a thorough understanding of endometriosis,14 and a comprehensive and more elaborate assessment of the global effect of the symptoms on women's sexual function using validated questionnaires is urgently needed.14
In contrast to active research of sexual problems throughout the world, studies of female sexual function have been very limited in mainland China. Because of the Asian conservative culture, people in mainland China consider sex to be a taboo topic and therefore are reluctant to discuss it openly. Furthermore, the issue of sexuality tends to be neglected by gynecologists. However, more recently, there has been a growing emphasis on sexual enjoyment in mainland China.15 Thus, the objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence and correlated factors of female sexual dysfunction in endometriosis in mainland China using a validated questionnaire.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The study used a cross-sectional design. All participants were recruited among consecutive inpatients scheduled for laparoscopic surgery at Peking Union Medical College Hospital based on signs and symptoms suggestive of endometriosis (ie, dysmenorrhea, nonmenstrual pelvic pain, ovarian cysts, and infertility) between July 2011 and April 2012. The study was reviewed and approved by the institution's Ethics Committee, and all participants provided written informed consent before study entry.
The eligibility criteria were as follows: women who were aged 18–49 years; sexually active during the previous 4 weeks; and those who had laparoscopically diagnosed and histologically confirmed endometriosis. We excluded women who had signs of pelvic inflammatory disease during laparoscopy, symptoms suggestive of interstitial cystitis, those who had received hormone therapies 3 months before surgery, and those who had a history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, or chronic kidney diseases.
Sample size was calculated based on our pilot study with the first 20 women, which demonstrated a 55% prevalence of female sexual dysfunction in women with endometriosis. Population-based surveys in urban China have shown that 35% of women have at least one persistent sexual dysfunction.15 Thus, a minimal sample size of 95 was calculated to detect a 55% prevalence of sexual dysfunction, with a 10% estimated error and a confidence level of 95%. Considering a 10% refusal rate, a total of 106 participants would be required for survey.
Before surgery, a semi-structured interview was conducted to obtain detailed information on demographic features and disease characteristics. Demographic data included age, height, weight, education level, marital status, years with the current sexual partner, and household yearly income. Body mass index was calculated as weight (kg)/[height (m)]2. The intensity of pelvic pain was quantified using the 10-mm visual analog scale, in which the left extreme represented the absence of pain and the right extreme represented the worst possible pain. A score of 5 or less was considered no pain or mild pain, and score more than 5 was considered moderate-to-severe pain.16 Infertility was defined as the inability to become pregnant after 1 year of unprotected and regular sexual intercourse.
Female sexual dysfunction was assessed using the Female Sexual Function Index developed by Rosen et al17 in 2000. The Female Sexual Function Index is the most commonly used and the gold standard instrument to assess sexual function in women who have been sexually active during the previous 4 weeks.17–19 It is a 19-item questionnaire comprising the following six domains: desire (two questions); arousal (four questions); lubrication (four questions); orgasm (three questions); satisfaction (three questions); and pain (three questions). Each domain is scored on a scale of 0 to 6, with higher scores indicating better function for each domain. A domain score of 0 indicates that the women reported no sexual activity during the previous month, and the full score ranges from 2 to 36. The simplified Chinese version of the Female Sexual Function Index was translated and validated by Sun et al,20 and it was found to be reliable and valid in mainland China. We used the widely accepted cut-off score of 26.55 or lower as an indication of female sexual dysfunction.21
During surgery, the laparoscopic findings were recorded, and the extent of endometriosis was determined according to the revised American Society for Reproductive Medicine classification system.22 The diagnosis of endometriosis was confirmed histologically. Deep infiltrating endometriosis was defined as the presence of endometriotic glands and stroma larger than 5 mm under the peritoneal surface. All women underwent operation by the same surgeon (J.-h. Leng) and staging was performed by the same surgeon (J.-h. Leng).
Data were expressed as means±standard deviation, median (interquartile range), or number (percentage) according to the variables. For inferential analysis, an independent t test, Mann-Whitney U test and Pearson' χ2 test were used to compare study variables between cases (total Female Sexual Function Index score 26.55 or less) and controls (total Female Sexual Function Index score more than 26.55), when appropriate. The variables that correlated with cases in the univariable analysis (P<.20) and those thought to be clinically significant were then included in further backward logistic regression analysis to determine the correlated factors of female sexual dysfunction. The regression models eliminated all variables that were not statistically significant at the level of 0.10. Model goodness of fit was examined using the Hosmer-Lemeshow test. All data were analyzed by SPSS 17.0 (SPSS), and P<.05 was considered statistically significant.
Of the 116 inpatients approached for the study, two refused to participate. Three women were excluded because of the histologic diagnosis of pyosalpinx (n=2) or pelvic tuberculosis (n=1). Accordingly, a total of 111 women were eligible for the study, which gave a response rate of 98.2%. Of all of the participants, 81 women had sexual dysfunction, resulting in a crude prevalence of 73.0%. Demographic features and disease characteristics of study participants are shown in Table 1.
Analyses of our data showed that no demographic variables were significantly associated with female sexual dysfunction (Table 2). With regard to disease characteristics, participants with moderate to severe pelvic pain, deep infiltrating endometriosis, and advanced stages were more likely to have sexual dysfunction (P=.001, P=.009, and P=.001, respectively). However, fertility status was not significantly related to sexual dysfunction (P=.49) (Table 2).
Eight variables (age, education, marital status, household yearly income, infertility, pelvic pain intensity, deep infiltrating endometriosis, and revised American Society for Reproductive Medicine stage) were included in our multiple backward logistic regression analysis. Data analysis showed that pelvic pain intensity (P=.014) and revised American Society for Reproductive Medicine stages (P=.020) were significantly associated with female sexual dysfunction. Compared with the participants with no to mild pelvic pain, those with moderate-to-severe pelvic pain had a 3.4-fold (95% confidence interval 1.3–8.8) higher risk of having sexual dysfunction after adjustment for confounding factors. Participants with stage III or IV had a 4.4-fold (95% confidence interval 1.3–15.5) higher risk than those with stages I or II after adjustment for confounding factors. The model fit using the Hosmer-Lemeshow test was adequate (P=.25).
In the present study, we used a validated questionnaire to comprehensively examine the prevalence and correlated factors of female sexual dysfunction in women with endometriosis in mainland China. Our results indicated that sexual dysfunction is highly prevalent in women with endometriosis, especially for those with moderate-to-severe pelvic pain and advanced stages.
Although few studies have investigated the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in women with endometriosis, several studies have clearly indicated that sexual function was impaired in women with endometriosis, especially for the dimension of deep dyspareunia, which affected 60–80% of women undergoing surgery and 50–90% of those using medical therapies.10,11 Our study indicated that the prevalence of sexual dysfunction among the study participants was 73%, which is higher than the prevalence found among general adult women in urban China.15 In addition, this prevalence is even higher than in women treated for cervical cancer.19,23 However, few studies have tried to investigate the prevalence of this issue among women with endometriosis. Therefore, we cannot currently compare our results with other studies.
It is not surprising to find that women with moderate-to-severe pelvic pain were more likely to experience sexual dysfunction. This finding is consistent with that of Verit et al,24 who reported that 67.8% of women with chronic pelvic pain reported sexual dysfunction and that pain intensity was negatively associated with sexual function.24 Recently, another study in Brazil also reported that 39.3% of women with chronic pelvic pain caused by endometriosis were sexually unsatisfied25 and had a decreased frequency of sexual intercourse as well as vaginismus, sexual aversion, and reduced expression of sensuality. Moreover, fear of pain during intercourse also may reduce their sexual desire.
Regarding the revised American Society for Reproductive Medicine stage, which is another related factor, this study found that women with stage III or IV had higher risk of sexual dysfunction. Advanced stages are often associated with the development of considerable adhesions in the pelvic cavity, resulting in the immobilization of pelvic organs during coital activity. As reported in our previous study, the severity of obliteration in the cul-de-sac, which is the main contributor to endometriosis stage, was independently associated with deep dyspareunia.26 Inconsistent findings were reported by Tripoli et al.25 We postulate that the disagreement might be attributable to the differences between participants. All participants in the study by Tripoli et al reported chronic pelvic pain and, as mentioned, pelvic pain intensity is independently associated with female sexual dysfunction.
In contrast to the limited literature arguing that sexual function is primarily associated with deep infiltrating endometriosis,4,5 our findings showed no significant relation after adjusting for the multiple variables. It has been reported that participants with endometriosis infiltrating the uterosacral ligament have less satisfying orgasms and higher sexual pain intensity,4 as well as more severe pelvic pain.27 In the present study, four fifths of women with deep infiltrating endometriosis reported moderate-to-severe pelvic pain (n=45/56), which was significantly higher than those without deep infiltrating endometriosis (n=31/55; P=.008, data not shown). Thus, it can be inferred that deep infiltrating endometriosis is not the main determinant of sexual function in women with endometriosis. Women's quality of life regarding sex may be impaired through the induction of pelvic pain.
We are aware that our study had some limitations. First, the cross-sectional nature of this study does not allow us to infer a direct causal relationship between the variables identified. Thus, a longitudinal study is needed to further investigate any causal relationships among the factors included in this study. Second, the generalization of our results may be limited. Patients included in the study might not be representative of the entire population, because the study was conducted in a referral center for the treatment of endometriosis and, not surprisingly, more than 85% of the patients had stage III or IV. Obviously, the characteristics of the sexual life of this group of women are more severe. Third, we used the widely accepted cut-off value of 26.55 as an indication for the diagnosis of female sexual dysfunction.21 However, different cut-off values of the Female Sexual Function Index exist among populations from different cultural backgrounds.29 Thus, it is critical that cut-off values of Female Sexual Function Index are determined for the Chinese population.
All patients in this study were consecutive inpatients and only two patients refused to participate, which are important strengths of this investigation. This might be because the majority of our participants were well-educated. Second, all participants answered the questionnaire before surgery, so the women and gynecologists were blinded to the presence and site of the endometriotic lesions. Third, to minimize performance bias, all of our patients underwent operation and staging by the same experienced gynecologist (J.-h. Leng), and endometriosis was histologically confirmed for all patients.
In conclusion, our comprehensive study indicates that endometriosis deeply impairs sexual function in women in mainland China. More than two thirds of the women experience sexual dysfunction, especially those with moderate-to-severe pelvic pain or advanced stages. Our results also underscore that female sexual health concerns should be integrated into routine gynecologic care.
1. Giudice LC. Clinical practice. Endometriosis. N Engl J Med 2010;362:2389–98.
2. Rogers PA, D'Hooghe TM, Fazleabas A, Gargett CE, Giudice LC, Montgomery GW, et al.. Priorities for endometriosis research: recommendations from an international consensus workshop. Reprod Sci 2009;16:335–46.
3. Marques A, Bahamondes L, Aldrighi JM, Petta CA. Quality of life in Brazilian women with endometriosis assessed through a medical outcome questionnaire. J Reprod Med 2004;49:115–20.
4. Ferrero S, Esposito F, Abbamonte LH, Anserini P, Remorgida V, Ragni N. Quality of sex life in women with endometriosis and deep dyspareunia. Fertil Steril 2005;83:573–9.
5. Ferrero S, Abbamonte LH, Parisi M, Ragni N, Remorgida V. Dyspareunia and quality of sex life after laparoscopic excision of endometriosis and postoperative administration of triptorelin. Fertil Steril 2007;87:227–9.
6. Vercellini P, De Giorgi O, Mosconi P, Stellato G, Vicentini S, Crosignani PG. Cyproterone acetate versus a continuous monophasic oral contraceptive in the treatment of recurrent pelvic pain after conservative surgery for symptomatic endometriosis. Fertil Steril 2002;77:52–61.
7. Guzick DS, Huang LS, Broadman BA, Nealon M, Hornstein MD. Randomized trial of leuprolide versus continuous oral contraceptives in the treatment of endometriosis-associated pelvic pain. Fertil Steril 2011;95:1568–73.
8. Vercellini P, Aimi G, Busacca M, Apolone G, Uglietti A, Crosignani PG. Laparoscopic uterosacral ligament resection for dysmenorrhea associated with endometriosis: results of a randomized, controlled trial. Fertil Steril 2003;80:310–9.
9. Abbott J, Hawe J, Hunter D, Holmes M, Finn P, Garry R. Laparoscopic excision of endometriosis: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Fertil Steril 2004;82:878–84.
10. Ferrero S, Ragni N, Remorgida V. Deep dyspareunia: causes, treatments, and results. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2008;20:394–9.
11. Denny E, Mann CH. Endometriosis-associated dyspareunia: the impact on women's lives. J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care 2007;33:189–93.
12. ter Kuile MM, Weijenborg PT, Spinhoven P. Sexual functioning in women with chronic pelvic pain: the role of anxiety and depression. J Sex Med 2010;7:1901–10.
13. Keskin U, Coksuer H, Gungor S, Ercan CM, Karasahin KE, Baser I. Differences in prevalence of sexual dysfunction between primary and secondary infertile women. Fertil Steril 2011;96:1213–7.
14. Vercellini P, Meana M, Hummelshoj L, Somigliana E, Vigano P, Fedele L. Priorities for endometriosis research: a proposed focus on deep dyspareunia. Reprod Sci 2011;18:114–8.
15. Parish WL, Laumann EO, Pan S, Hao Y. Sexual dysfunctions in urban china: a population-based national survey of men and women. J Sex Med 2007;4:1559–74.
16. Vercellini P, Fedele L, Aimi G, Pietropaolo G, Consonni D, Crosignani PG. Association between endometriosis stage, lesion type, patient characteristics and severity of pelvic pain symptoms: a multivariate analysis of over 1000 patients. Hum Reprod 2007;22:266–71.
17. Rosen R, Brown C, Heiman J, Leiblum S, Meston C, Shabsigh R, et al.. The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI): a multidimensional self-report instrument for the assessment of female sexual function. J Sex Marital Ther 2000;26:191–208.
18. Sand M, Rosen R, Meston C, Brotto LA. The female sexual function index (FSFI): a potential “gold standard” measure for assessing therapeutically-induced change in female sexual function. Fertil Steril 2009;92:S129.
19. Tsai TY, Chen SY, Tsai MH, Su YL, Ho CM, Su HF. Prevalence and associated factors of sexual dysfunction in cervical cancer patients. J Sex Med 2011;8:1789–96.
20. Sun X, Li C, Jin L, Fan Y, Wang D. Development and validation of Chinese version of female sexual function index in a Chinese population-a pilot study. J Sex Med 2011;8:1101–11.
21. Wiegel M, Meston C, Rosen R. The female sexual function index (FSFI): cross-validation and development of clinical cutoff scores. J Sex Marital Ther 2005;31:1–20.
22. Revised American Society for Reproductive Medicine classification of endometriosis: 1996. Fertil Steril 1997;67:817–21.
23. Donovan KA, Taliaferro LA, Alvarez EM, Jacobsen PB, Roetzheim RG, Wenham RM. Sexual health in women treated for cervical cancer: characteristics and correlates. Gynecol Oncol 2007;104:428–34.
24. Verit FF, Verit A, Yeni E. The prevalence of sexual dysfunction and associated risk factors in women with chronic pelvic pain: a cross-sectional study. Arch Gynecol Obstet 2006;274:297–302.
25. Tripoli TM, Sato H, Sartori MG, de Araujo FF, Girao MJ, Schor E. Evaluation of quality of life and sexual satisfaction in women suffering from chronic pelvic pain with or without endometriosis. J Sex Med 2011;8:497–503.
26. Dai Y, Leng JH, Lang JH, Li XY, Zhang JJ. Anatomical distribution of pelvic deep infiltrating endometriosis and its relationship with pain symptoms. Chin Med J (Engl) 2012;125:209–13.
27. Chapron C, Santulli P, de Ziegler D, Noel JC, Anaf V, Streuli I, et al.. Ovarian endometrioma: severe pelvic pain is associated with deeply infiltrating endometriosis. Hum Reprod 2012;27:702–11.
28. Berkley KJ, Rapkin AJ, Papka RE. The pains of endometriosis. Science 2005;308:1587–9.
29. Safarinejad MR. Female sexual dysfunction in a population-based study in Iran: prevalence and associated risk factors. Int J Impot Res 2006;18:382–95.
Figure. No available...Image Tools
© 2013 The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists
What does "Remember me" mean?
By checking this box, you'll stay logged in until you logout. You'll get easier access to your articles, collections,
media, and all your other content, even if you close your browser or shut down your
To protect your most sensitive data and activities (like changing your password),
we'll ask you to re-enter your password when you access these services.
What if I'm on a computer that I share with others?
If you're using a public computer or you share this computer with others, we recommend
that you uncheck the "Remember me" box.
Looking for ABOG articles? Visit our ABOG MOC II collection. The selected Green Journal articles are free through the end of the calendar year.
ACOG MEMBER SUBSCRIPTION ACCESS
If you are an ACOG Fellow and have not logged in or registered to Obstetrics & Gynecology, please follow these step-by-step instructions to access journal content with your member subscription.
Data is temporarily unavailable. Please try again soon.
Readers Of this Article Also Read