Obstetrics & Gynecology:
Self-Perception of Weight and Its Association With Weight-Related Behaviors in Young, Reproductive-Aged Women
Rahman, Mahbubur MBBS, PhD; Berenson, Abbey B. MD, MMS
From the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and the Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Women's Health, Galveston, Texas.
Corresponding author: Mahbubur Rahman, MBBS, PhD, MPH, Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Women's Health, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston TX 77555-0587; e-mail: email@example.com.
Supported by a K24 grant awarded to A.B.B. (K24HD043659).
The content of this article is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the NIH.
Financial Disclosure The authors did not report any potential conflicts of interest.
OBJECTIVES: To examine weight misperceptions and their predictors and association with weight-related behaviors among low-income, multiethnic, reproductive-age women.
METHODS: We assessed perceptions of body weight and weight-related behaviors of women aged 18 to 25 attending one of five publicly funded reproductive clinics in Texas between August 2008 and March 2010. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires and chart review. Overweight and normal-weight women were divided into four categories based on self-perception of their body weight: overweight misperceivers, overweight actual perceivers, normal-weight misperceivers, and normal-weight actual perceivers. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the predictors of misperception and the association with weight-related behaviors.
RESULTS: Twenty-three percent (267/1,162) of overweight and 16% (170/1,062) of normal-weight women were misperceivers. Overweight African-American women were more likely to consider themselves normal weight (28% compared with 15%; odds ratio [OR], 2.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.79–4.50), whereas normal-weight African-American women were less likely than whites to consider themselves overweight (7% compared with 16%; OR 0.40; 95% CI 0.22–0.74). Overweight women who had at least some college education (14% compared with 29%; OR 0.53; 95% CI 0.32–0.86) and used the Internet (18% compared with 28%; OR 0.47; 95% CI 0.31–0.70) were less likely to misperceive their body weight. Normal-weight misperceivers were more likely to report healthy and unhealthy weight-reduction behaviors compared with normal-weight actual perceivers, after adjusting for age, race, ethnicity, and body mass index. Opposite scenarios were observed for overweight misperceivers.
CONCLUSION: Weight misperception is common among both overweight and normal-weight women of reproductive age. Clinicians should provide patient-specific counseling related to healthy weight management goals that take each patient's perceptions into consideration.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III
The prevalence of obesity in the United States has more than doubled in the past three decades.1 More than half of reproductive-age women between 20 and 39 years of age are currently overweight or obese, with African Americans and Hispanics at even higher risk.2 The World Health Organization labeled obesity as the most blatantly visible but most neglected public health problem worldwide.3
Self-perception of body weight is the degree of concordance between perceived and measured weight. Accurate perception of body weight is important for the success of obesity prevention programs. Furthermore, behavioral intervention programs of any kind are not successful unless an overweight person recognizes that he or she is overweight.4–6 Earlier studies have shown that the accuracy in weight perception has been associated with age, sex, race or ethnicity, body mass index (BMI, calculated as weight (kg)/[height (m)]2), income, education, and lifestyle behaviors.5–12 However, data are lacking on reproductive-age women and the association of their weight perception with healthy and unhealthy weight-related behaviors.
Determining the extent of misperception of body weight is especially important in reproductive-age women because they are more likely to be obese than similarly aged men.13 More than one half of reproductive-age women in the United States currently have BMIs more than 25,14 placing them at increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease at a young age. Minority women are at even higher risk; an alarming 82% of African-American and 75% of Mexican-American women now meet the criteria for being overweight or obese. Moreover, reproductive-age women are prone to gain excess body weight during pregnancy and postpartum period.15–18 Greater misperception of body weight in this group means less weight loss behavior, which may make them more vulnerable to cardiovascular disease risk factors and other obesity-related diseases. Furthermore, it has not been determined to what extent reproductive-age women are practicing unhealthy weight-related behaviors because of misperception of their body weight. The purpose of this study was to examine misperception of body weight and its association with healthy and unhealthy weight-related behaviors in a multiethnic, reproductive-age population of women.
PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS
We conducted a cross-sectional survey on health behaviors among women 16 to 25 years of age attending one of five publicly funded reproductive health clinics between August 2008 and March 2010. Surveys were self-administered and those who agreed to participate were reimbursed $5 for their time. To assure that patients completed the survey only once during this 2-year interval, study personnel maintained a cumulative database containing the names of those who had previously completed the survey and compared it daily to the names of those appointed for a visit. Women who had previously completed the survey were not approached a second time. All procedures were approved by the Institutional Review Board of the University of Texas Medical Branch.
This study focused on survey questions pertaining to sociodemographic variables, height, weight, weight perceptions, and weight-related behaviors among participants 18 to 25 years old. Age was calculated using years and months. Race and ethnicity were self-reported, with choices including non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic African American, Hispanic, Asian, Native American or Alaskan native, native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander, and other. No classification was available for mixed race. We restricted our analysis in this article to non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic African-American, and Hispanic women because of the limited sample size of other categories. Information about education level, marital status, work hours per week, and Internet use were also obtained by self-report. Height and weight values were obtained from anthropomorphic data recorded in the medical chart. Women with BMIs less than 25 and 25 or more were considered as being normal weight and overweight, respectively. Self-perception of weight was measured by asking, “How would you describe your weight?” Response options included, “very underweight,” “slightly underweight,” “about the right weight,” “slightly overweight,” and “very overweight.” For analysis purposes, these five response options were collapsed into two categories: 1) overweight (includes slightly overweight and very overweight) and 2) normal weight (includes very underweight, slightly underweight, and approximately the right weight). Using their calculated BMI and self-perception of weight, overweight and normal-weight women were then divided into four categories: overweight misperceivers (overweight women who described themselves as underweight or normal weight), overweight actual perceivers (overweight women who described themselves as overweight), normal-weight misperceivers (normal-weight women who described themselves as overweight), and normal-weight actual perceivers (normal-weight women who described themselves as normal weight or underweight).
Eight questions were used to assess behaviors in the previous 30 days engaged in losing weight or keeping from gaining weight. Behaviors assessed (yes or no) included using diet pills, diet powder, or diet liquids, laxatives, diuretics, induced vomiting, skipping meals, eating less or differently, smoking more cigarettes, and not eating carbohydrates. Respondents were also asked about number of days they exercised or played sports for at least 30 minutes continuously in the past week.
Univariable comparisons were performed to compare the two groups (accurate perceivers compared with misperceivers in normal-weight and overweight women) using the χ2 or Student t test, as appropriate. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify correlates of overweight misperceivers and normal-weight misperceivers. Variables were screened for inclusion in an initial multivariable model. Candidate variables with P≤.20 were included in the initial multivariable model. Multivariable logistic regression was also used to compare weight-related behaviors of misperceivers with accurate perceivers, adjusting for age, race or ethnicity, and BMI. All analyses were performed using STATA 11.
Of the 2,224 women (18–25 years old) included in this study, 48.3% (n=1,076) were Hispanic (primarily Mexican or Mexican American), 27.0% (n=601) were white, 23.8% (n=529) were African American, and 0.8% (n=18) were from other racial or ethnic groups. The mean age of the sample was 21.4 years (standard deviation 2.1; range 18–25 years). Overall, 47.8% (1,062/2,224) of the women had normal weight (BMI less than 25), whereas 52.2% (1,162/2,224) were overweight or obese (BMI 25 or more). Tabulating self-perception of weight with actual weight status showed that 16% (170/1,062) of normal-weight women and 23.0% (267/1,162) of overweight (36.8% of overweight and 10.5% of obese) women were misperceivers (Table 1).
Univariable analyses showed that the mean age was the same for overweight misperceivers and overweight accurate perceivers, but normal-weight misperceivers were slightly older than normal-weight accurate perceivers (Table 2). The mean BMI of overweight accurate perceivers and normal-weight misperceivers was significantly higher than that of their counterparts. Significantly more Hispanic (24.7%) and African-American (28.2%) women were overweight misperceivers compared with white respondents (14.8%), whereas significantly more white (16.0%) and Hispanic women (19.7%) were normal-weight misperceivers compared with African-American women (7.4%). Women who were Internet users, who had some college education, or those who were employed more than 20 hours per week were less likely to be overweight misperceivers. Four correlates (BMI, race or ethnicity, education, and Internet use) that were significant in the univariable analysis remained significant in multivariable logistic regression model, whereas age and hours worked were not (Table 3).
Univariable analyses between self-perception of body weight and weight-related behaviors showed that the overweight misperceivers were significantly less likely to report most of the healthy and unhealthy weight-related behaviors than the overweight accurate perceivers (Table 4). However, the opposite scenario was observed for normal-weight accurate perceivers. The multivariable logistic regression model, after adjusting for age, race, ethnicity, and BMI, showed a similar pattern (Table 5). Overweight misperceivers had significantly lower odds of dieting, skipping meals, and using diet pills, powders, or liquids compared with their counterparts. However, normal-weight misperceivers were significantly more likely than normal-weight accurate perceivers to report both healthy and unhealthy weight-related behaviors. They were more than twice as likely to diet, skip meals, and smoke more cigarettes when compared with normal-weight accurate perceivers. The respective odds were nearly four and five times higher with regard to using diet pills, powder, liquids, and using diuretics.
We performed separate analysis for underweight women. One hundred twenty-five women had BMIs less than 18.5; 65 (52.0%) considered themselves as underweight, 57 (45.6%) considered themselves normal weight, and three (2.4%) considered themselves overweight. Fourteen (11.2%) of the underweight women had a history of using any of the unhealthy behaviors to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight during past 30 days. Eight women considered themselves underweight, whereas six considered themselves normal weight.
We observed that a large number (23%) of overweight and normal-weight (16%) reproductive-age women do not accurately perceive their BMI category. Our finding that nearly one in four overweight reproductive-age women misperceives that her body weight is consistent with those of other population-based large studies that have examined this among adult women.5,7 Furthermore, our observations that underassessment of body weight was more common in African Americans and in women with lower education levels and overassessment of body weight was more common in white and Hispanic women and both are consistent with other published reports.5–7 Together, these studies provide evidence that misperception of body weight is common in adult women. This report adds to the literature the observation that among reproductive-aged women, both overweight accurate perceivers and normal-weight misperceivers frequently participate in both healthy and unhealthy weight-related behaviors.
Underassessment of body weight is common among adolescent and adult men and women.5–8,10–12,19,20 Because reproductive-aged women are more susceptible to gain weight than similar-aged men, interventional programs should emphasize the consequences of underassessment of body weight and health risk associated with excess body weight. Overassessment of body weight is also common and well-documented.5 One notable finding in this study is that reproductive-age women, normal-weight misperceivers had significantly higher odds of reporting several unhealthy weight-related behaviors (eg, using diet pills, liquids, or powders; using diuretics; and smoking more cigarettes), which is a real concern. These behaviors have been found to be associated with adverse physical, psychological, and nutritional outcomes and eating disorders.21–27 Weight gain over time, increase in depressive symptoms, inadequate nutritional intake, bulimia, and anorexia were reported to be higher in individuals with unhealthy weight-related behaviors. This finding may give clinicians a point of discussion when counseling reproductive-age women about obesity and weight loss issues. As a prevention program, clinicians should routinely inquire about unhealthy weight-related behaviors and counsel them appropriately.
Weight misperception is a threat to the success of the obesity prevention program. The Health Belief Model offers some potential explanation for the mechanisms underlying self-perception and behavior change to avoid obesity. The model is based on six components: perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, cues to action, and self-efficacy. The first component is related to weight perception. If overweight individuals do not perceive that they are overweight, then other components of the Health Belief Model would not work for them. In an earlier study in reproductive-age women, we observed that even perceived weight gain was not enough to increase weight loss behavior.28 It could be attributable to the fact that even after weight gain, they do not assume themselves as overweight. Thus, the first prerequisite of the success of obesity prevention program is that the target group needs to recognize themselves as overweight. Addressing misperception should be the first step for the obesity prevention ladder.
Our finding that weight misperception is a determinant of healthy and unhealthy weight-related behaviors has several implications. First, the lower likelihood of overweight misperceivers to practice healthy weight loss behavior than overweight accurate perceivers seems to have a negative effect on an obesity prevention program. Second, the higher likelihood of normal-weight misperceivers to practice four of the six unhealthy weight loss behaviors is a matter of concern. More than one third of normal-weight misperceivers had at least one unhealthy weight-related behavior, and this is a public health threat because these behaviors have medical and psychological consequences.21–27 This double-edged problem of weight misperception needs to be addressed by appropriate awareness programs from health care providers and from the media.
The strength of our study includes use of actual height and weight to calculate BMI-based weight status; several studies have observed that BMI based on self-reported height and weight are underestimated.29,30 This study has several limitations. We examined misperception of weight in women 18 to 25 years old, so we do not know whether similar findings would be observed in older reproductive-age women. In addition, we used BMI to categorize overweight and normal weight. Because BMI does not distinguish between lean mass and fat mass, we may have misclassified some women who were more muscular.
In conclusion, we observed that misperception of weight and unhealthy weight-related behaviors are common in reproductive-age women. Clinicians should provide patient-specific counseling to reproductive-age women based on the presence of misperception of weight and unhealthy weight-related behaviors. Efforts to educate them about accurate weight status and safe and effective weight loss strategies are essential. Obesity-related consequences of misperception and dangers of unhealthy weight-related practices should be highlighted specifically.
1. Wang Y, Beydoun MA. The obesity epidemic in the United States—gender, age, socioeconomic, racial/ethnic, and geographic characteristics: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Epidemiol Rev 2007;29:6–28.
2. Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Ogden CL, Curtin LR. Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999–2008. JAMA 2010;303:235–41.
3. World Health Organization. Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser 2000;894:1–252.
4. Ver Ploeg ML, Chang HH, Lin BH. Over, under, or about right: misperceptions of body weight among food stamp participants. Obesity 2008;16:2120–5.
5. Kuchler F, Variyam JN. Mistakes were made: misperception as a barrier to reducing overweight. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2003;27:856–61.
6. Paeratakul S, White MA, Williamson DA, Ryan DH, Bray GA. Sex, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and BMI in relation to self-perception of overweight. Obes Res 2002;10:345–50.
7. Dorsey RR, Eberhardt MS, Ogden CL. Racial/ethnic differences in weight perception. Obesity 2009;17:790–5.
8. Gregory CO, Blanck HM, Gillespie C, Maynard LM, Serdula MK. Health perceptions and demographic characteristics associated with underassessment of body weight. Obesity 2008;16:979–86.
9. Donath SM. Who's overweight? Comparison of the medical definition and community views. Med J Aust 2000;172:375–7.
10. Miller EC, Schulz MR, Bibeau DL, Galka AM, Spann LI, Martin LB, et al. Factors associated with misperception of weight in the stroke belt. J Gen Intern Med 2008;23:323–8.
11. Truesdale KP, Stevens J. Do the obese know they are obese? N C Med J 2008;69:188–94.
12. White MA, Masheb RM, Burke-Martindale C, Rothschild B, Grilo CM. Accuracy of self-reported weight among bariatric surgery candidates: the influence of race and weight cycling. Obesity 2007;15:2761–8.
13. Hedley AA, Ogden CL, Johnson CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR, Flegal KM. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among US children, adolescents, and adults,1999–2002. JAMA 2004;291:2847–50.
14. Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR, et al. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, 1999–2004, JAMA 2006;295:1549–55.
15. Rooney BL, Schauberger CW. Excess pregnancy weight gain and long-term obesity: one decade later. Obstet Gynecol 2002;100:245–52.
16. Linné Y, Dye L, Barkeling B, Rössner S. Long-term weight development in women: a 15-year follow-up of the effects of pregnancy. Obes Res 2004;12:1166–78.
17. Gunderson EP, Murtaugh MA, Lewis CE, Quesenberry CP, West DS, Sidney S. Excess gains in weight and waist circumference associated with childbearing: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study (CARDIA). Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2004;28:525–35.
18. Williamson DF, Kahn HS, Remington PL, Anda RF. The 10-year incidence of overweight and major weight gain in US adults. Arch Intern Med 1990;150:665–72.
19. Jones M, Grilo CM, Masheb RM, White MA. Psychological and behavioral correlates of excess weight: Misperception of obese status among persons with Class II obesity. Int J Eat Disord 2009 Aug 28 [Epub ahead of print].
20. Edwards NM, Pettingell S, Borowsky IW. Where perception meets reality: self-perception of weight in overweight adolescents. Pediatrics 2010;125:e452–8.
21. Stice E, Bearman SK. Body-image and eating disturbances prospectively predict increases in depressive symptoms in adolescent girls: a growth curve analysis. Dev Psychol 2001;37:597–607.
22. Stice E, Burton EM, Shaw H. Prospective relations between bulimic pathology, depression, and substance abuse: unpacking comorbidity in adolescent girls. J Consult Clin Psychol 2004;72:62–71.
23. Neumark-Sztainer D, Wall M, Guo J, Story M, Haines J, Eisenberg M. Obesity, disordered eating, and eating disorders in a longitudinal study of adolescents: how do dieters fare 5 years later? J Am Diet Assoc 2006;106:559–68.
24. Neumark-Sztainer D, Hannan PJ, Story M, Perry CL. Weight-control behaviors among adolescent girls and boys: implications for dietary intake. J Am Diet Assoc 2004;104:913–20.
25. Stice E, Presnell K, Shaw H, Rohde P. Psychological and behavioral risk factors for obesity onset in adolescent girls: a prospective study. J Consult Clin Psychol 2005;73:195–202.
26. Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M, French SA. Covariations of unhealthy weight loss behaviors and other high-risk behaviors among adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1996;150:304–8.
27. Sciacca JP, Melby CL, Hyner GC, Brown AC, Femea PL. Body mass index and perceived weight status in young adults. J Community Health 1991;16:159–68.
28. Le YC, Rahman M, Berenson AB. Perceived weight gain as a correlate of physical activity and energy intake among white, black, and Hispanic reproductive-aged women. J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2010 Sep 11 [Epub ahead of print].
29. Taylor AW, Dal Grande E, Gill TK, Chittleborough CR, Wilson DH, Adams RJ, et al. How valid are self-reported height and weight? A comparison between CATI self-report and clinic measurements using a large cohort study. Aust N Z J Public Health 2006;30:238–46.
30. Gillum RF, Sempos CT. Ethnic variation in validity of classification of overweight and obesity using self-reported weight and height in American women and men: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Nutr J 2005;4:27.
Figure. No caption available.
This article has been cited 1 time(s).
Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Screening and Management of Obesity and Perception of Weight Status in Medicaid Recipients
Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 24(2):
© 2010 The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists
ACOG MEMBER SUBSCRIPTION ACCESS
If you are an ACOG Fellow and have not logged in or registered to Obstetrics & Gynecology, please follow these step-by-step instructions to access journal content with your member subscription.