Obstetrics & Gynecology:
Physiotherapy for Persistent Postnatal Stress Urinary Incontinence: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Dumoulin, Chantale PhD, PT*†; Lemieux, Marie-Claude MD, FRCSC‡§; Bourbonnais, Daniel PhD, OT*†; Gravel, Denis PhD, PT*†; Bravo, Gina PhD¶∥; Morin, Mélanie MSc, PT*†
From the *School of Rehabilitation, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, Canada; †Rehabilitation Institute of Montreal, Research Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Rehabilitation of Montreal, Montreal, Canada; ‡Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital, Montreal, Canada; §Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, Canada; ¶Department of Community Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Canada; and ∥Research Center on Aging, Sherbrooke University Geriatric Institute, Sherbrooke, Canada.
Supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and Laborie Medical Technologies Inc. through a Canadian Institutes of Health Research–Industry grant. C. Dumoulin was supported by studentships from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and from the Fonds de la Recherche en Santé du Québec.
The authors thank Dr. Robert Gauthier and members of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Sainte-Justine's Hospital in Montreal, Canada, for their assistance with data collection.
Address reprint requests to: Chantale Dumoulin, Rehabilitation Institute of Montreal, Research Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Rehabilitation of Montreal, 6300 Darlington, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3S 2J4; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Received March 9, 2004. Received in revised form April 29, 2004. Accepted May 7, 2004.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of multimodal supervised physiotherapy programs with the absence of treatment among women with persistent postnatal stress urinary incontinence.
METHODS: This was a single-blind randomized controlled trial. Sixty-four women with stress urinary incontinence were randomly assigned to 8 weeks of either multimodal pelvic floor rehabilitation (n = 21), multimodal pelvic floor rehabilitation with abdominal muscle training (n = 23), or control non–pelvic floor rehabilitation (n = 20). The primary outcome measure consisted of a modified 20-minute pad test. The secondary outcome measures included a Visual Analog Scale describing the perceived burden of incontinence, the Urogenital Distress Inventory, the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire, and pelvic floor muscle function measurements.
RESULTS: Two patients dropped out, leaving 62 for analysis. At follow-up, more than 70% of the women in the treatment groups (14/20 in the pelvic floor and 17/23 in the pelvic floor plus abdominal group) were continent on pad testing compared with 0% of women in the control group. Scores on the pad test, Visual Analog Scale, Urogenital Distress Inventory, and Incontinence Impact Questionnaire improved significantly in both treatment groups (all P < .002), whereas no changes were observed in the control group. Pelvic floor muscle function, however, did not improve significantly in either active group.
CONCLUSION: Multimodal supervised pelvic floor physiotherapy is an effective treatment for persistent postnatal stress urinary incontinence.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: I
Postnatal stress urinary incontinence is an important social and hygienic health problem affecting between 3% and 24% of adult women.1,2 Those in whom stress urinary incontinence develops during pregnancy or puerperium without remission 3 months after delivery have a very high risk of symptom persistence 5 years later.3 Pelvic floor muscle physiotherapy is generally recommended to reduce postnatal urinary incontinence. This therapy involves graded muscle training, either alone or in combination with biofeedback, electrical stimulation, and vaginal cones and is designed to rehabilitate and strengthen the pelvic floor muscle.4 Although pelvic floor muscle physiotherapy after childbirth has proven effective in the prevention of urinary incontinence,5–8 few trials have addressed the treatment of persistent postnatal stress urinary incontinence.9,10 In addition, although these trials produced good results, the dropout rates were high (52% and 25%, respectively).9,10
Recent experimental data suggest that deep abdominal exercises may be used to improve the effect of a pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation program.11,12 However, no clinical trial has evaluated their potentiating effects.
This article reports the results of a randomized controlled trial in which the primary objective was to assess the effectiveness of pelvic floor muscle physiotherapy programs in the treatment of persistent postnatal stress urinary incontinence. The secondary objective was to compare pelvic floor rehabilitation programs with and without deep abdominal muscle training in the treatment of persistent postnatal stress urinary incontinence.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Young parous women were recruited by means of a urinary incontinence questionnaire handed out at the obstetrics clinic of Sainte-Justine Hospital to patients during their annual gynecologic visit. If incontinence was reported, the women were screened by telephone to determine their eligibility. To be eligible, participants had to be younger than 45 years, premenopausal, still presenting symptoms of stress urinary incontinence at least once per week 3 months or more after their last delivery, and willing to participate in the study. Women who had experienced urinary incontinence before pregnancy, who had had previous surgery for stress incontinence, a neurologic or psychiatric disease, or a major medical condition, or those who were taking medication that could interfere with their evaluation or treatment were excluded. Current pregnancy and inability to understand French or English instructions were also causes for exclusion.
A total of 120 potential participants met the initial criteria. The local ethics committee approved the study and all participants provided their written informed consent to enrollment. The study was conducted between January 2001 and April 2003. Subjects were scheduled for evaluation by a gynecologist. Those with moderate to severe urogenital prolapse (Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification System stage II or higher)13 were excluded. After remaining subjects emptied their bladders, the amount of residual urine was measured to exclude those with a high postvoid residual urine volume (more than 50 mL). The bladder was then refilled by catheter with 250 mL of sterile water at ambient room temperature. To confirm the diagnosis of stress urinary incontinence, subjects performed a 20-minute pad test, substituting 10 jumping jacks14 for the standard jumping exercises.15 Those with less than 5 g of leakage measured by the 20-minute pad test with fixed bladder volume were excluded. Urodynamic testing was then performed in the remaining candidates. Those with involuntary detrusor contraction on cystometry were excluded from the study.
Sixty-four women were randomly allocated to a pelvic floor rehabilitation group, a pelvic floor rehabilitation plus abdominal training group, or a control group. Stratified randomization was performed using a balanced block randomization schedule generated from a table of random numbers.16 Because severity of incontinence and parity are factors that may affect the outcomes of treatment,4 subjects were stratified into 4 groups according to the results of the pad test (5–10 g of urine loss and more than 10 g of leakage) and parity (primipara and multipara). The evaluators and clinicians involved with the treatment groups had no access to the randomization procedure. A research investigator who was not involved in any intervention or outcome assessment informed all participants of their group allocation, which was preestablished by the randomization schedule. The participants were asked not to disclose their group allocation to the evaluators.
Five physiotherapists were trained to conduct both standardized reeducation programs. The women in the pelvic floor rehabilitation group had weekly sessions under the supervision of an experienced physiotherapist for 8 consecutive weeks. Each session consisted of a 15-minute electrical stimulation of the pelvic floor muscle (stimulating-current characteristics: biphasic rectangular form; frequency 50 Hz; pulse width 250 microseconds; duty cycle, 6 seconds on and 18 seconds off for the first 4 weeks and 8 seconds on and 24 seconds off for the last 4 weeks; maximal tolerated current intensity14), followed by a 25-minute pelvic floor muscle exercise program with biofeedback, which included strengthening and motor relearning exercises,17,18 and a home exercise program to be done 5 days per week.17,18 The UROSTIM Unit (Laborie Medical Technologies, Brossard, Quebec, Canada) was used for the electrical stimulation and electromyographic biofeedback during the whole supervised treatment.
The women in the pelvic floor rehabilitation plus abdominal training group followed weekly sessions under the supervision of an experienced physiotherapist for 8 consecutive weeks. Each session consisted of the multimodal pelvic floor rehabilitation protocol described previously plus 30 minutes of deep abdominal muscle training consisting of isolation, reeducation, and functional retraining of the transversus abdominis.19 Complete deep abdominal muscle training protocols are available from the first author.
The women in the control group had 8 weekly sessions of relaxation massage for the back and extremities performed by a physiotherapist. They were asked not to exercise their pelvic floor muscles at home during the study, but were offered the possibility of receiving a treatment at trial completion.
The primary outcome measure consisted of a modified 20-minute pad test with standardized bladder volume.14 A nurse-assessor who was unaware of the treatment allocation of the participant administered the test twice, once during the initial evaluation and again the week after treatment ended. Participants with pad weight gains of less than 2 g were considered continent.14
The secondary outcome consisted of 4 different measures. The subject's perceived burden of incontinence was evaluated using a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) that proved to be valid, reproducible, and responsive to treatment for urinary incontinence in women.20 Assessment of symptoms associated with incontinence was performed using a French version of the Urogenital Distress Inventory, a 19-item questionnaire about lower urinary tract symptoms.21 Assessment of the psychological impact of urinary incontinence was performed using the French Canadian version of the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire, 26 items focusing on daily living, social interaction, sex life, and self-perception.22 Both questionnaires have acceptable levels of reliability, validity, and responsiveness and have been used in several clinical trials.21–23
Finally, pelvic floor maximum strength and rapidity of contraction were measured using a new static pelvic floor muscle dynamometer24 designed to evaluate the pelvic floor muscle function. The psychometric properties of the measurements taken with the new device have been studied in young parous women in a large research program, which included an acceptability study, a test-retest reliability trial, and a construct validity study.24–26 All secondary outcome measures were taken during the preintervention evaluation and during the postintervention evaluation the week after the intervention ended.
The sample size was initially set at 29 subjects per group. This sample size would provide 80% power to detect a statistically significant group by time interaction effect at the .05 significance level if the active treatments induced medium to large effect sizes. The expected effect sizes were based on a pilot study on physiotherapy for postnatal stress urinary incontinence, with urine loss on the pad test as the primary outcome measure.13 In that study, we observed a difference in the pretreatment and posttreatment mean of the order of 0.60 standard deviation, which corresponds to a medium-to-large effect.27
Analysis was done on data from treated participants, excluding those without a final evaluation of the outcome variables. First, the experimental and control groups were compared for background (age, body mass index, parity, duration of symptoms) and outcome variables to determine the comparability of the groups at baseline. A nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test was used because several outcome variables were not normally distributed and sample sizes were small. Pretreatment and posttreatment scores for primary and secondary outcome measures were compared to evaluate change in each of the three groups with the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Then, the change scores (pretreatment − posttreatment scores) for the experimental and control groups were compared to determine whether they varied between groups. The Kruskal-Wallis test was performed for this purpose. Finally, the Mann-Whitney test was used to detect differences between the control group and each experimental group and between each experimental group. Two-tailed P values of .05 were considered statistically significant. All analyses were performed using SPSS 11.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL).
The flow of participants through each stage of the randomized trial is presented in Figure 1. The characteristics of the three groups were comparable at baseline (Table 1). Furthermore, the outcome measures at baseline were not significantly different among the 3 groups (Table 2).
Pad test scores improved significantly (P < .001) in both the pelvic floor and the pelvic floor plus abdominal treatment groups but not in the control group (P = .243). More than 70% of the women in both treatment groups (14/20 in the pelvic floor group and 17/23 in the pelvic floor plus abdominal group) showed objective cure as defined by less than 2 g urine on the pad test, whereas none in the control group were cured (Fig. 2). Approximately 90% of the women in the active treatment groups showed a greater than 50% reduction in leakage compared with 10% among the women in the control group (Fig. 2). Scores on the VAS, Urogenital Distress Inventory, and the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire improved significantly (all P < .002) in both treatment groups but not in the control group (all P > .589). However, the pelvic floor muscle maximum strength and rapidity of contraction did not improve significantly in any of the 3 groups.
Statistical analyses comparing change scores among the 3 groups showed statistically significant results for all outcome measures (all P < .028) except the pelvic floor muscle function tests. In addition, there were statistically significant differences in scores on the pad test, VAS, Urogenital Distress Inventory, and Incontinence Impact Questionnaire in 2 compared groups: control versus pelvic floor (all P < .019) and control versus pelvic floor plus abdominal (all P < .021) (Table 3). No statistically significant difference in change scores was observed, however, for scores on the pad test, VAS, Urogenital Distress Inventory, and Incontinence Impact Questionnaire between the 2 treatment groups.
No adverse effects or difficulty using electrical stimulation were reported by the subjects of this study. Finally, the results of the intention-to-treat analyses were virtually the same as those of the treatment analysis for all outcomes.
Multimodal supervised pelvic floor physiotherapy reduces persistent postnatal stress urinary incontinence. This study demonstrates that multimodal supervised pelvic floor physiotherapy programs are more effective than no treatment in parous women with persistent stress urinary incontinence. The choice of a control group in which no treatment was offered was made in terms of the population studied; namely, women with persistent postnatal stress urinary incontinence 3 or more months after delivery who could show a spontaneous reduction of symptoms with time. By giving massage to the control group, we controlled for the response of subjects to the special attention they received from physiotherapists.
Our results corroborate those from the randomized controlled trials of Wilson and Herbison9 and Glazener et al,10 who reported that 7 and 9 months of pelvic floor rehabilitation significantly reduced persistent stress urinary incontinence. In-depth comparison between the results of the present study and those of the previous studies is difficult, because the training protocol and its duration differed among studies.
It is important to point out that marked objective and subjective improvement in continence status was observed after only 8 weeks of pelvic floor rehabilitation with high adherence to treatment. Our dropout rate was only 6% compared with 52% in Wilson and Herbison's study and 25% in Glazener et al's study. Interestingly, more than 30% of the withdrawals from Wilson and Herbison's study9 were related to time constraints and work. It is possible that the much shorter intervention time and close supervision of the intervention by a trained physiotherapist in our study contributed to the patients’ strong adherence to the treatment. We recognize, however, that the extent of symptom duration after delivery was somewhat different from that in the study by Wilson and Herbison and Glazener et al, which may also have contributed to the difference in dropout rates.
Many factors may have contributed to the marked objective and subjective improvement in continence status observed in a shorter period. First, pelvic floor muscle exercises conducted under the close supervision of a trained professional have proven more effective than pelvic floor exercises performed at home.4 In addition, the present protocol, with the use of electrical stimulation, biofeedback in conjunction with pelvic floor muscle training, and timed pelvic floor contractions, may have contributed to rapid continence improvement. However, the relative contribution of each factor cannot be determined in our study. Whether these results will translate into long-term cure or improvement of persistent posturinary stress incontinence is unknown at this point.
Although the objective and subjective continence outcomes improved significantly after implementation of both pelvic floor rehabilitation programs, it appears that these effects are not related directly to changes in the pelvic floor muscle function. Factors other than strength and rapidity of contraction may have contributed to continence. Motor learning phenomena not related to change in maximal strength, such as better timing of the pelvic floor contraction and increased perception of pelvic muscle contraction encouraged by the present rehabilitation protocol, may have contributed to the rapid change in continence status. Nonetheless, the results do not exclude the possibility that the small sample size in this study (n = 20, n = 23, and n = 19) was a limiting factor and that any nonsignificant results may be due to type II errors. A larger sample size would be needed to make a good pelvic floor muscle function comparison between groups.
Finally, the present results suggest that the addition of abdominal training does not further improve the outcome of pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation. Although we were unable to recruit 29 subjects per group as planned initially, the improvement in the pelvic floor group as measured by the pad test was higher than expected, making additional improvement in the pelvic floor rehabilitation plus abdominal training group virtually undetectable and clinically nonsignificant.
1. Viktrup L, Lose G, Rolf M, Barfoed K. The frequency of urinary symptoms during pregnancy and puerperium in the primipara. Int Urogynecol J 1993;4:27–30.
2. Wilson PD, Herbison RM, Herbison GP. Obstetric practice and the prevalence of urinary incontinence three months after delivery. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1996;103:54–161.
3. Viktrup L. The risk of lower urinary tract infection five years after the first delivery. Neurourol Urodyn 2002;21:2–29.
4. Wilson PD, Bo K, Hay-Smith J, Staskin D, Nygaard I, Wyman J. Conservative treatment in women. In: Abrams P, Cardozo L, Khoury S, Wein A, editors. Incontinence. Second international consultation on incontinence. 2nd ed. Plymouth (UK): Health Publication; 2002. p. 571–623.
5. Morkved S, Bo K. The effect of postpartum pelvic floor muscle exercise in the prevention and treatment of urinary incontinence. Int Urogynecol J 1997;8:217–22.
6. Morkved S, Bo K, Schei B, Asmund Salvesen K. Effect of postpartum pelvic floor muscle training in prevention and treatment of urinary incontinence: a one-year follow up. B J Obstet Gynaecol 2000;107:1022–8.
7. Chiarelli P, Cockburn J. Promoting urinary incontinence in women after delivery: randomized controlled trial. BMJ 2002;324:1241.
8. Meyer S, Hohlfeld P, Achtari C, DeGrandi P. Pelvic floor education after vaginal delivery. Obstet Gynecol 2001;97:673–7.
9. Wilson PD, Herbison GP. A randomized controlled trial of pelvic floor muscle exercises to treat post-natal urinary incontinence. Int Urogynecol J 1998;9:257–64.
10. Glazener CMA, Herbison GP, Wilson PD, MacArthur C, Lang GD, Gee H, et al. Conservative management of persistent post-natal urinary and fecal incontinence: randomized controlled trial. BMJ 2001;323:593–7.
11. Sapsford RR, Hodges PW. Contraction of pelvic floor muscles during abdominal maneuvers. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82:1081–8.
12. Sapsford RR, Hodges PW, Richardson CA, Cooper DH, Markwell SJ, Jull GA. Co-activation of the abdominal and pelvic floor muscles during voluntary exercises. Neurourol Urodyn 2001;20:31–42.
13. Bump RC, Mattiasson A, Bo K, Brubaker LP, De Lancey JOL, Karskov P, et al. 1996. The standardization of terminology of female pelvic organ prolapse and pelvic floor dysfunction. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1996;175:10–7.
14. Dumoulin C, Seaborne DE, Quirion-De Girardi C, Sullivan J. Pelvic-floor rehabilitation, part II: pelvic floor reeducation with interferential currents and exercise in the treatment of genuine stress incontinence in postpartum women; a cohort study. Phys Ther 1995;75:1075–81.
15. Hahn I, Fall M. Objective quantification of stress urinary incontinence: A short reproducible, provocative pad-test. Neurourol Urodyn 1991;10:475–81.
16. Pocock SJ. Clinical trials: a practical approach. New York (NY): John Wiley & Sons; 1983.
17. Bo K, Talseth T, Holme I. Single blind, randomized controlled trial of pelvic floor exercises, electrical stimulation, vaginal cones and no treatment in the management of genuine stress incontinence. BMJ 1999;318:487–93.
18. Miller JM, Ashton-Miller JA, De Lancey JOL. A pelvic muscle precontraction can reduce cough-related urine loss in selected women with mild SUI. J Am Geriatr Soc 1998;46:870–4.
19. Richardson CA, Jull GA, Hodges PW, Hides JA. Therapeutic exercise for spinal segmental stabilization in low back pain: scientific basis and clinical approach. London (UK): Churchill Livingstone; 1998.
20. Stach-Lempinen B, Kujansuu E, Laippala P, Metsänoja R. Visual Analog Scale, urinary incontinence severity score and 15D-psychometric testing of three different health related quality-of-life instruments for urinary incontinent women. Scand J Urol Nephrol 2001;35:476–83.
21. Shumaker SA, Wyman JF, Uebersax JS, Mc Clish D, Fantl JA. Health-related quality of life measures for women with urinary incontinence: the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire and the Urogenital Distress Inventory. Continence Program in Women (CPW) Research Group. Qual Life Res 1994;3:291–306.
22. Beaulieu S, Collet JP, Tu LM, Macrammalla E, Wood-Dauphinee S, Corcos J. Performance of the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire in Canada. Can J Urol 1999;6:692–9.
23. Donavan JL, Badia X, Corcos J, Gotoh M, Kelleher C, Naughton M, Shaw C. Symptoms and quality of life assessment. In: Abrams P, Cardozo L, Khoury S, Wein A, editors. Incontinence. Second international consultation on incontinence. 2nd ed. Plymouth (UK): Health Publication; 2002. p. 267–316.
24. Dumoulin C, Bourbonnais D, Lemieux MC. Development of a dynamometer for measuring the isometric force of the pelvic floor musculature. Neurourol Urodyn 2003;22:648–53.
25. Dumoulin C, Gravel D, Bourbonnais D, Lemieux MC, Morin M. Reliability of dynamometric measurements of the pelvic floor musculature. Neurourol Urodyn 2004;23:134–42.
26. Morin M, Dumoulin C, Bourbonnais D, Gravel D, Lemieux MC. Pelvic floor maximal strength using vaginal digital assessment compared to dynamometric measurements. Neurourol Urodyn 2004;23:336–41.
27. Cohen J. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. 2nd ed. Mahwah (NJ): Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 1988.
This article has been cited 29 time(s).
Medicina ClinicaUrinary incontinence 6 months after childbirthMedicina Clinica
Journal De Gynecologie Obstetrique Et Biologie De La Reproduction
Conservative treatment of female stress urinary incontinence
Journal De Gynecologie Obstetrique Et Biologie De La Reproduction, 38(8):
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
The costs and benefits of physiotherapy as first-line treatment for female stress urinary incontinence
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 29(5):
Neurourology and UrodynamicsReliability of speed of contraction and endurance dynamometric measurements of the pelvic floor musculature in stress incontinent parous womenNeurourology and Urodynamics
Journal of Sexual Medicine"Diagnostic investigation of the pelvic floor": A helpful tool in the approach in patients with complaints of micturition, defecation, and/or sexual dysfunctionJournal of Sexual Medicine
Physikalische Medizin Rehabilitationsmedizin KurortmedizinPhysical therapy options in treatment of female stress urinary incontinencePhysikalische Medizin Rehabilitationsmedizin Kurortmedizin
Cochrane Database of Systematic ReviewsPelvic floor muscle training for prevention and treatment of urinary and faecal incontinence in antenatal and postnatal womenCochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Neurourology and UrodynamicsEvidence for Benefit of Transversus Abdominis Training Alone or in Combination With Pelvic Floor Muscle Training to Treat Female Urinary Incontinence: A Systematic ReviewNeurourology and Urodynamics
Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica ScandinavicaPelvic floor muscle training in the prevention and treatment of urinary incontinence in women - what is the evidence?Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Pelvi-PerineologieConservative treatment of female stress urinary incontinencePelvi-Perineologie
American Journal of Obstetrics and GynecologyTeaching and practicing of pelvic floor muscle exercises in primiparous women during pregnancy and the postpartum periodAmerican Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
International Urogynecology JournalThe facilitatory effect of duloxetine combined with pelvic floor muscle training on the excitability of urethral sphincter motor neuronsInternational Urogynecology Journal
Neurourology and UrodynamicsReliability of Dynamometric Passive Properties of the Pelvic Floor Muscles in Postmenopausal Women With Stress Urinary IncontinenceNeurourology and Urodynamics
International Urogynecology JournalConstriction of the levator hiatus during instruction of pelvic floor or transversus abdominis contraction: a 4D ultrasound studyInternational Urogynecology Journal
Manual TherapyAn alternative intervention for urinary incontinence: Retraining diaphragmatic, deep abdominal and pelvic floor muscle coordinated functionManual Therapy
Obstetrics and GynecologyLower urinary tract symptoms and pelvic floor muscle exercise adherence after 15 yearsObstetrics and Gynecology
Nature Clinical Practice UrologyDoes pelvic floor muscle training prevent and treat urinary and fecal incontinence in pregnancy?Nature Clinical Practice Urology
Physiological MeasurementSpatial distribution of vaginal closure pressures of continent and stress urinary incontinent womenPhysiological Measurement
Journal of UrologyThe Adjustable Continence Therapy System for Recurrent Female Stress Urinary Incontinence: 1-Year Results of the North America Clinical Study GroupJournal of Urology
PhysiotherapyWhen and how should new therapies become routine clinical practice?Physiotherapy
International Urogynecology JournalPregnancy after TVT-O: case report and literature reviewInternational Urogynecology Journal
International Urogynecology JournalPelvic floor muscle function in women presenting with pelvic floor disordersInternational Urogynecology Journal
Neurourology and UrodynamicsSystematic Review: Abdominal or Pelvic Floor Muscle Training ResponseNeurourology and Urodynamics
Neurourology and UrodynamicsRandomized controlled trial of physiotherapy for postpartum stress incontinence: 7-year follow-upNeurourology and Urodynamics
Neurourology and UrodynamicsDoes it work in the long term?-A systematic review on pelvic floor muscle training for female stress urinary incontinenceNeurourology and Urodynamics
Clinical Interventions in AgingUse of the SF-36 quality of life scale to assess the effect of pelvic floor muscle exercise on aging males who received transurethral prostate surgeryClinical Interventions in Aging
Journal of Physiotherapy
There is not yet strong evidence that exercise regimens other than pelvic floor muscle training can reduce stress urinary incontinence in women: a systematic review
Journal of Physiotherapy, 59(3):
European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Comparisons of approaches to pelvic floor muscle training for urinary incontinence in women: an abridged Cochrane systematic review
European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, 48(4):
Current Opinion in Obstetrics and GynecologyPostnatal pelvic floor muscle training for preventing and treating urinary incontinence: where do we stand?Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology
© 2004 The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists
ACOG MEMBER SUBSCRIPTION ACCESS
If you are an ACOG Fellow and have not logged in or registered to Obstetrics & Gynecology, please follow these step-by-step instructions to access journal content with your member subscription.