Skip Navigation LinksHome > February 2004 - Volume 103 - Issue 2 > Maternal Morbid Obesity and the Risk of Adverse Pregnancy Ou...
Obstetrics & Gynecology:
doi: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000107291.46159.00
Original Research: Lead Article

Maternal Morbid Obesity and the Risk of Adverse Pregnancy Outcome

Cedergren, Marie I. MD, PhD

Free Access
Article Outline
Collapse Box

Author Information

From the Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.

Received August 25, 2003. Received in revised form October 9, 2003. Accepted October 17, 2003.

Supported by the Ostergotland County Council. The authors thank the National Board of Health and Social Welfare, Stockholm, for access to the health registers.

Address reprint requests to: Dr. Marie Cedergren, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital, SE-581 85 Linköping, Sweden; e-mail: marie.cedergren@lio.se.

Collapse Box

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether morbidly obese women have an increased risk of pregnancy complications and adverse perinatal outcomes.

METHODS: In a prospective population-based cohort study, 3,480 women with morbid obesity, defined as a body mass index (BMI) more than 40, and 12,698 women with a BMI between 35.1 and 40 were compared with normal-weight women (BMI 19.8–26). The perinatal outcome of singletons born to women without insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus was evaluated after suitable adjustments.

RESULTS: In the group of morbidly obese mothers (BMI greater than 40) as compared with the normal-weight mothers, there was an increased risk of the following outcomes (adjusted odds ratio; 95% confidence interval): preeclampsia (4.82; 4.04, 5.74), antepartum stillbirth (2.79; 1.94, 4.02), cesarean delivery (2.69; 2.49, 2.90), instrumental delivery (1.34; 1.16, 1.56), shoulder dystocia (3.14; 1.86, 5.31), meconium aspiration (2.85; 1.60, 5.07), fetal distress (2.52; 2.12, 2.99), early neonatal death (3.41; 2.07, 5.63), and large-for-gestational age (3.82; 3.50, 4.16). The associations were similar for women with BMIs between 35.1 and 40 but to a lesser degree.

CONCLUSION: Maternal morbid obesity in early pregnancy is strongly associated with a number of pregnancy complications and perinatal conditions.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II-2

Today, obesity is a worldwide individual and public health issue because it contributes to the development of several chronic diseases. The rate of obesity in the general population is increasing dramatically. Obesity among fertile women is reaching epidemic proportions.1 In Sweden, the prevalence of overweight women in their fertile years doubled during 1980–1997.2 The number of women suffering from morbid obesity has also markedly increased in this country during the last decade.

It is already commonly known that maternal overweight and obesity are associated with adverse pregnancy outcome, such as maternal hypertension, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, more frequent cesarean delivery, delivery of large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants, and stillbirths.3–8 There are obvious signs in a few studies that pregnancies in morbidly obese women show even more complications and adverse outcomes,9–11 although low patient numbers limit their statistical power.

The objective of this study was to thoroughly assess, in a large prospective data set from the Swedish medical health register, whether morbid obesity, defined by a body mass index (BMI) 35.1–40 or BMI greater than 40, was associated with an increased risk of adverse perinatal outcome and if so to quantify this risk after adjustment for conceivable confounders.

Back to Top | Article Outline

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The local ethics committee approved this study. The study population consisted of 972,806 pregnancies delivered in Sweden January 1, 1992, through December 31, 2001. In 805,275 (82.8%) cases, information on maternal height and weight in early pregnancy was available. The women were identified by using the Swedish Medical Birth Registry. Medical data on almost all (98–99%) deliveries in Sweden are listed in the register, which also includes stillbirths after 28 weeks of gestation. The register contains a large number of items concerning pregnancy, delivery, and pediatric neonatal examination. It is based on a copy of the standardized medical record forms completed at the maternity health care centers, at the start of prenatal care, usually in gestational weeks 10–12, records from the delivery units, and the pediatric examination of the newborn. The system is identical throughout the country. A description and validation of the register content is available.12,13 The midwife records maternal weight and height on a standardized form at the first visit at the maternity health care center. Ninety percent of the women present themselves to this antenatal clinic during the first trimester of their pregnancy.

Body mass index (kg/m2) was calculated from maternal weight and height data. Obese women were defined by a BMI greater than 29. Within this group, two subgroups of morbidly obese women were studied: BMI 35.1–40 and BMI greater than 40. The definition of morbid obesity may vary; therefore, we decided to evaluate the 2 groups separately. Obese women were compared with normal-weight women (BMI 19.8–26).

The unit of analysis was delivery. The possible impact of the fact that a woman may have more than one delivery during the study period was checked by only including the first delivery of each woman during the study period.

Primary outcomes were, antenatally, the occurrence of preeclampsia, abruptio placenta, placenta previa, and stillbirths after 28 weeks of gestation among singleton pregnancies. Around-term variables evaluated were the rate of cesarean delivery, labor inductions, pre- and postterm delivery, instrumental delivery, anal sphincter injury, shoulder dystocia, postpartum hemorrhage, and epidural anesthesia. Small-for-gestational age infants were defined as those with birth weights more than 2 standard deviations below the mean birth weight for gestational age according to a Swedish reference curve,14 and LGA infants were those with birth weight above 2 standard deviations. Estimated gestational age was in most cases based on second-trimester ultrasound screening.

Neonatal outcomes studied were as follows: meconium aspiration, fetal distress, low Apgar score (less than 7 at 5 minutes), and early neonatal death (less than 7 days after birth). The outcome variables are registered in the Swedish Medical Birth Registry by using the International Classification of Diseases. Women with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus were excluded.

Maternal age, parity, smoking, and year of birth were thought to be potential confounding factors and were included as covariates in the adjusted analyses. Maternal education, as a marker of socioeconomic status, was also added (information only available for the years 1992–1995). Preexisting hypertension and gestational diabetes were not included as confounders in this analysis for 2 reasons. First, a true confounder affects both the exposure and the outcome. Exposure in this study was prepregnancy massive obesity. Second, our purpose was to address the outcome, not necessarily the path.

Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were determined by using Mantel-Haenszel technique.15 The morbidly obese groups, BMI 35–40 and BMI greater than 40, were each compared with normal-weight women (BMI 19.8–26). Estimates of 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were made with a test-based method, based on the Mantel-Haenszel χ2 (Miettinen OS. Simple interval estimation of risk ratio [letter]. Am J Epidemiol 1974;100:515–6).

Back to Top | Article Outline

RESULTS

The majority of the women in the study population were of European Caucasian origin, 1% were born in South America, 1.4% were Asian, and 1% came from Sub-Saharan Africa. Maternal BMI could be calculated for 82.8% of all births registered during the study period. In this group, 1.6% (12,698 of 805,275) had a BMI between 35.1 and 40 and 0.4% (3,480 of 805,275) had a BMI greater than 40. Morbidly obese women, defined as having a BMI greater than 35, represented 2% of all pregnant women with a known BMI in this work.

The morbidly obese women were compared with normal-weight women with respect to maternal age, parity, maternal smoking in early pregnancy, and the number of multiple pregnancies (Table 1). The women who were obese were slightly older, more often multiparous, and smokers. Multiple pregnancies occurred equally often across BMI strata.

Table 1
Table 1
Image Tools

The following comparisons were restricted to singleton deliveries. Antenatal complications are presented in Table 2. The risk of preeclampsia among the morbidly obese women was increased almost 5-fold. The corresponding OR for women with BMIs between 35.1 and 40 was 3.90. Being morbidly obese carried an almost 3-fold increase in risk of antepartum stillbirths relative to normal-weight women, adjusted OR 2.79 (95% CI 1.94, 4.02). Abruptio placenta occurred equally often among normal-weight women and morbidly obese women. There was a decreased risk of placenta previa in the morbidly obese group, even more pronounced among the heaviest mothers.

Table 2
Table 2
Image Tools

Cesarean delivery was more common in morbidly obese women (Table 3). The frequency was almost 3 times as high for morbidly obese women as it was for women of normal BMI. The risk of instrumental delivery was increased 18% in women with a BMI between 35.1 and 40 and increased 34% in women with a BMI greater than 40. When the analyses were restricted to only the first delivery of each woman during the study period, no significant change in OR was obtained. Shoulder dystocia occurred 3 times more often among the morbidly obese women.

Table 3
Table 3
Image Tools

Massive obesity was associated with both early and late deliveries. Compared with normal-weight women, morbidly obese women were more likely to be induced, even after deduction of preeclampsia patients: the adjusted OR 2.38 (95% CI 2.17, 2.60).

The prevalence of LGA infants was almost 4 times as high among morbidly obese women than among women with normal BMI (Table 4). The risk was also increased for having a small-for-gestational-age infant among the morbidly obese (greater than 40), although after removing women with preeclampsia, this increased risk was no longer statistically significant: adjusted OR 1.23 (95% CI 0.94, 1.60).

Table 4
Table 4
Image Tools

Neonatal outcome data are presented in Table 5. There was a more than 2-fold risk increase for fetal distress and low Apgar scores among infants of the morbidly obese women. Meconium aspiration occurred more often in infants of morbidly obese women than in women with normal BMI values: adjusted OR 2.85 (95% CI 1.60, 5.07). This variable was studied only when a vaginal delivery had been performed. The risk seems to be the same among women with a BMI between 35.1 and 40. For the years 1992–1995, information on maternal education was available. Adjustment for this factor reduced the estimated ORs only marginally.

Table 5
Table 5
Image Tools

A comparison also was made between women with a known BMI and those with an unknown BMI (17.3%) in our sample concerning the above-described variables. There were no differences in ORs. Those with unknown BMI seem to be a random sample of all pregnancies and therefore do not give a selection bias.

Back to Top | Article Outline

DISCUSSION

In this large population-based cohort study, a strong association exists between maternal morbid obesity in early pregnancy and a number of threatening complications during pregnancy, delivery, and in the neonatal period. This association has been pointed out in earlier studies, although low numbers of cases limited their statistical power.

Perlow et al10 determined in the late 1980s the impact of massive obesity (weight more than 300 pounds = more than 136 kg) on perinatal outcome. The study included 111 women who fulfilled this definition. They found an increased risk for overall cesarean delivery (OR 2.9), Apgar score at 5 minutes less than 7 (OR 3.0), birth weight more than 4,500 g (OR 8.1), and intrauterine growth restriction (OR 9.3). More recently, in a study from the United Arab Emirates concerning 188 morbidly obese women, BMIs greater than 40 were presented.9 An increased risk for cesarean delivery (OR 2.3) and birth weight above 4,000 g (OR 3.9) was described.

When it comes to relatively rare complications, such as shoulder dystocia and stillbirth, sufficient patient numbers concerning the morbidly obese women have not previously been available. In a recent report from Sweden, the risk of stillbirth was doubled among obese women (BMI greater than 30).7 Our findings indicate an almost 3-fold increased risk of antepartum stillbirth in the group of morbidly obese women. Whatever mechanism is behind the association between maternal obesity and stillbirth, it seems to be influenced by the degree of obesity.

Massive obesity seems to be protective from placenta previa. The information on this condition comes to the register from the delivery units and therefore it is unlikely that the decreased risk is due to undetected cases by ultrasound among the massively obese.

In a large study from London, no increased risk of instrumental delivery was seen among women with a BMI greater than 30.3 That is in contrast with our findings because we found a slightly increased risk specifically for the massively obese women. Anal sphincter lacerations were surprisingly not over-represented in the group of morbidly obese women despite the increased prevalence of LGA infants, instrumental deliveries, and the use of epidural anesthesia. All of these are factors well documented to be associated with an increased risk of perineal lacerations.16,17 A possible explanation is that midline episiotomy is not practiced at all in Sweden. There were increased numbers of labor inductions. From a clinical point of view, this is relevant and warrants further evaluation, such as the reasons for induction of labor, which is beyond the scope of this study.

The advantage of register studies is that the large number of individuals available for evaluation gives higher statistical power and makes it possible to demonstrate associations with low-prevalence pregnancy outcome variables. The drawback is the sometimes-low validity of information.

Exposure information (weight and height) was recorded in early pregnancy and therefore prospective regarding the pregnancy outcome variables. Recall bias was thus avoided. Exposure information could be retrieved for 82.8% of all births registered during the study period. We evaluated the group of women with missing data on weight and height and no ORs concerning the outcome variables studied were increased compared with women with known BMI. The possibility of selection bias of extremely obese women in the group of women with missing data is thus less probable.

A number of potential confounding factors associated with maternal obesity were adjusted for in this study, such as maternal age, parity, and smoking in early pregnancy. A putative confounding factor, not stratified for in this study, is socioeconomic level that could have affected the results, but smoking during pregnancy is strongly correlated with socioeconomic level in Sweden.18 For part of the material, maternal education was added as a confounder. This reduced the estimated ORs marginally.

We did not exclude women with gestational diabetes diagnosed in late pregnancy. It is possible that our sample includes women with undetected or unreported non–insulin-dependent diabetes, which could explain the results, but these conditions can be regarded as intermediaries. The same is true for the inclusion of women with chronic hypertension. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pregnancy outcome in the group of morbidly obese women and not to identify the mechanisms behind the associations. Earlier studies also found that stratifying for a number of potential factors that could influence the outcome did not substantially change the risk estimates.3

It is possible that a multiple-testing problem exists. Most effects found are strong and highly statistically significant, but some are moderate and show marginal statistical significance and may be the result of multiple testing, for example, the increased risk for postpartum bleeding.

Another problem concerning studies in this field is the definition of obesity and even more difficult the definition of morbid obesity. Different values for defining obesity were used in different studies, which make it difficult to compare risk estimates. To facilitate such comparisons, we present risk estimates for both women with BMIs between 35.1 and 40 and women with BMIs greater than 40. There seems to be overall slightly higher risk estimates in the group with BMIs greater than 40 as compared with the group with BMIs between 35.1 and 40, although ratios are not statistically significantly different.

This large study points out a strong association between maternal morbid obesity in early pregnancy and a number of threatening complications during pregnancy, delivery, and in the neonatal period. The importance of these findings could be examined from different views. It implicates the need of prepregnancy advice and counseling to young women and could be a convincing argument for weight reduction in this group. Pregnancies among morbidly obese women must be classified as high-risk pregnancies, and appropriate antenatal care should be provided. In addition, massive obesity among women of child-bearing age is associated with a number of health risks later in life.

Pregnancy is a life event in which women are inclined to behavioral changes. Is it possible that with appropriate management before and during pregnancy, the gestational weight gain could be reduced and maybe even contribute to persistent behavioral changes concerning nutrition and physical exercise postpartum?

Back to Top | Article Outline

REFERENCES

1. Mokdad AH, Serdula MK, Dietz WH, Bowman BA, Marks JS, Koplan JP. The spread of the obesity epidemic in the United States, 1991–1998. JAMA 1999;282:1519–22.

2. Lissner L, Johansson SE, Qvist J, Rossner S, Wolk A. Social mapping of the obesity epidemic in Sweden. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2000;24:801–5.

3. Sebire NJ, Jolly M, Harris JP, Wadsworth J, Joffe M, Beard RW, et al. Maternal obesity and pregnancy outcome: a study of 287,213 pregnancies in London. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2001;25:1175–82.

4. Cnattingius S, Bergstrom R, Lipworth L, Kramer MS. Prepregnancy weight and the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. N Engl J Med 1998;338:147–52.

5. Baeten JM, Bukusi EA, Lambe M. Pregnancy complications and outcomes among overweight and obese nulliparous women. Am J Public Health 2001;91:436–40.

6. Young TK, Woodmansee B. Factors that are associated with cesarean delivery in a large private practice: the importance of prepregnancy body mass index and weight gain. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2002;187:312–8.

7. Stephansson O, Dickman PW, Johansson A, Cnattingius S. Maternal weight, pregnancy weight gain, and the risk of antepartum stillbirth. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2001;184:436–9.

8. Jensen DM, Damm P, Sorensen B, Molsted-Pedersen L, Westergaard JG, Ovesen P, et al. Pregnancy outcome and prepregnancy body mass index in 2459 glucose-tolerant Danish women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003;189:239–44.

9. Kumari AS. Pregnancy outcome in women with morbid obesity. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2001;73:101–7.

10. Perlow JH, Morgan MA, Montgomery D, Towers CV, Porto M. Perinatal outcome in pregnancy complicated by massive obesity. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1992;167:958–62.

11. Bianco AT, Smilen SW, Davis Y, Lopez S, Lapinski R, Lockwood CJ. Pregnancy outcome and weight gain recommendations for the morbidly obese woman. Obstet Gynecol 1998;91:97–102.

12. Cnattingius S, Ericson A, Gunnarskog J, Källén B. A quality study of a medical birth registry. Scand J Soc Med. 1990;18:143–8.

13. The National Board of Health and Welfare. The Swedish medical birth register: a summary of content and quality. Available at: http://www.sos.se/FULLTEXT/112/2003-112-3/2003-112-3.pdf. Retrieved November 12, 2003.

14. Källén B. A birth weight for gestational age standard based on data in the Swedish Medical Birth Registry, 1985–1989. Eur J Epidemiol 1995;11:601–6.

15. Mantel N, Haenszel W. Statistical aspects of the analyses of data from retrospective studies of disease. J Natl Cancer Inst 1959;22:719–48.

16. Handa VL, Danielsen BH, Gilbert W. Obstetric anal sphincter lacerations. Obstet Gynecol 2001;98:225–30.

17. Donnelly V, Fynes M, Campbell D, Johnsson H, O'Connell PR, O'Herlihy C. Obstetric events leading to anal sphincter damage. Obstet Gynecol 1998;92:955–61.

18. Cnattingius S, Lambe M. Trends in smoking and overweight during pregnancy: prevalence, risks of pregnancy complications, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Semin Perinatol 2002;26:286–9.

Cited By:

This article has been cited 245 time(s).

European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care
A pilot study examining short-term changes in bone mineral density among class 3 obese users of depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate
Segall-Gutierrez, P; Agarwal, R; Ge, M; Lopez, C; Hernandez, G; Stanczyk, FZ
European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care, 18(3): 199-205.
10.3109/13625187.2013.774358
CrossRef
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology
Decreased myometrial p160 ROCK-1 expression in obese women at term pregnancy
O'Brien, M; Carbin, S; Morrison, JJ; Smith, TJ
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, 11(): -.
ARTN 79
CrossRef
American Journal of Psychiatry
SSRI Use During Pregnancy and Risk of Stillbirth and Neonatal Mortality
Jimenez-Solem, E; Andersen, JT; Petersen, M; Broedbaek, K; Lander, AR; Afzal, S; Torp-Pedersen, C; Poulsen, HE
American Journal of Psychiatry, 170(3): 299-304.
10.1176/appi.ajp.2012.11081251
CrossRef
Journal De Gynecologie Obstetrique Et Biologie De La Reproduction
Could we perform quality second trimester ultrasound among obese pregnant women?
Fuchs, F; Voulgaropoulos, A; Houllier, M; Senat, MV
Journal De Gynecologie Obstetrique Et Biologie De La Reproduction, 42(3): 275-281.
10.1016/j.jgyn.2012.11.010
CrossRef
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
The Preterm Prediction study: Association between maternal body mass index and spontaneous and indicated preterm birth
Hendler, I; Goldenberg, RL; Mercer, BM; Iams, JD; Meis, PJ; Moawad, AH; MacPherson, CA; Caritis, SN; Miodovnik, M; Menard, KM; Thurnau, GR; Sorokin, Y
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 192(3): 882-886.
10.1016/j.ajog.2004.09.021
CrossRef
Annals of Epidemiology
Maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity and the risk of cesarean delivery in nulliparous women
Vahratian, A; Siega-Riz, AM; Savitz, DA; Zhang, J
Annals of Epidemiology, 15(7): 467-474.
10.1016/j.annepidem.2005.02.005
CrossRef
Obstetrics and Gynecology
Birth outcomes in obese women after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding
Dixon, JB; Dixon, ME; O'Brien, PE
Obstetrics and Gynecology, 106(5): 965-972.

Human Reproduction
The preconceptual contraception paradigm: obsity and infertility
Nelson, SM; Fleming, RF
Human Reproduction, 22(4): 912-915.
10.1093/humrep/del473
CrossRef
Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Maternal obesity and pregnancy complications: A review
Ramachenderan, J; Bradford, J; Mclean, M
Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 48(3): 228-235.
10.1111/j.1479-828X.2008.00860.x
CrossRef
Geburtshilfe Und Frauenheilkunde
Analysis of subgroup of pregnant women in Germany
Voigt, M; Zygmunt, M; Henrich, W; Straube, S; Carstensen, M; Briese, V
Geburtshilfe Und Frauenheilkunde, 68(8): 794-800.
10.1055/s-2008-1038848
CrossRef
Maternal and Child Health Journal
Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and diagnosis of asthma in offspring at age 3 years
Reichman, NE; Nepomnyaschy, L
Maternal and Child Health Journal, 12(6): 725-733.
10.1007/s10995-007-0292-2
CrossRef
Jognn-Journal of Obstetric Gynecologic and Neonatal Nursing
Variables Associated With Breastfeeding Duration
Thulier, D; Mercer, J
Jognn-Journal of Obstetric Gynecologic and Neonatal Nursing, 38(3): 259-268.
10.1111/j.1552-6909.2009.01021.x
CrossRef
European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology
Non-elective caesarean delivery due to ineffective uterine contractility or due to obstructed labour in relation to maternal body mass index
Cedergren, MI
European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 145(2): 163-166.
10.1016/j.ejogrb.2009.05.022
CrossRef
Human Reproduction Update
Economic consequences of overweight and obesity in infertility: a framework for evaluating the costs and outcomes of fertility care
Koning, AMH; Kuchenbecker, WKH; Groen, H; Hoek, A; Land, JA; Khan, KS; Mol, BWJ
Human Reproduction Update, 16(3): 246-254.
10.1093/humupd/dmp053
CrossRef
Faseb Journal
Enduring consequences of maternal obesity for brain inflammation and behavior of offspring
Bilbo, SD; Tsang, V
Faseb Journal, 24(6): 2104-2115.
10.1096/fj.09-144014
CrossRef
Lancet
Pre-eclampsia
Sibai, B; Dekker, G; Kupferminc, M
Lancet, 365(): 785-799.

American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Increasing prepregnancy body mass index: Analysis of trends and contributing variables
Yeh, J; Shelton, JA
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 193(6): 1994-1998.
10.1016/j.ajog.2005.05.001
CrossRef
Lancet
Interpregnancy weight change and risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes: a population-based study
Villamor, E; Cnattingius, S
Lancet, 368(): 1164-1170.

Bmc Public Health
Effect of Body Mass Index on pregnancy outcomes in nulliparous women delivering singleton babies
Bhattacharya, S; Campbell, DM; Liston, WA; Bhattacharya, S
Bmc Public Health, 7(): -.
ARTN 168
CrossRef
Clinics in Perinatology
Long-term neurologic outcome of infants born by cesarean section
Adams-Chapman, I
Clinics in Perinatology, 35(2): 437-+.
10.1016/j.clp.2008.03.001
CrossRef
Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica
The importance of maternal BMI on infant's birth weight in four BMI groups for the period 1978-2001
Brynhildsen, J; Sydsjo, A; Ekholm-Selling, K; Josefsson, A
Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 88(4): 391-396.
10.1080/00016340902807199
CrossRef
Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America
Obesity and Its Relationship to Infertility in Men and Women
de Mola, JRL
Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America, 36(2): 333-+.
10.1016/j.ogc.2009.03.002
CrossRef
Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Cesarean section in morbidly obese women: supra or subumbilical transverse incision?
Tixier, H; Thouvenot, S; Coulange, L; Peyronel, C; Filipuzzi, L; Sagot, P; Douvier, S
Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 88(9): 1049-1052.
10.1080/00016340903128462
CrossRef
Homo-Journal of Comparative Human Biology
Morbid obesity: Pregnancy risks, birth risks and status of the newborn
Briese, V; Voigt, M; Hermanussen, M; Wittwer-Backofen, U
Homo-Journal of Comparative Human Biology, 61(1): 64-72.
10.1016/j.jchb.2009.11.002
CrossRef
American Journal of Epidemiology
Coffee and fetal death: A cohort study with prospective data
Bech, BH; Nohr, EA; Vaeth, M; Henriksen, TB; Olsen, J
American Journal of Epidemiology, 162(): 983-990.
10.1093/aje/kwi317
CrossRef
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Etiology and prevention of stillbirth
Fretts, RC
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 193(6): 1923-1935.
10.1016/j.ajog.2005.03.074
CrossRef
European Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology and Reproductive Biology
Obstetric outcome of 6346 pregnancies with infants affected by congenital heart defects
Cedergren, MI; Kallen, BAJ
European Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 125(2): 211-216.
10.1016/j.ejogrb.2005.07.06
CrossRef
International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics
Effects of gestational weight gain and body mass index on obstetric outcome in Sweden
Cedergren, M
International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 93(3): 269-274.
10.1016/j.ijgo.2006.03.002
CrossRef
Obesity
Obesity as an obstetric risk factor: Does it matter in a perinatal center?
Stepan, H; Scheithauer, S; Dornhofer, N; Kramer, T; Faber, R
Obesity, 14(5): 770-773.

Bjog-An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
The influence of body weight on response to ovulation induction with gonadotrophins in 335 women with World Health Organization group II anovulatory infertility
Balen, AH; Platteau, P; Andersen, AN; Devroey, P; Sorensen, P; Helmgaard, L; Arce, JC
Bjog-An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 113(): 1195-1202.
10.1111/j.1471-0528.2006.01034.x
CrossRef
Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
Assessment and management of obesity
Gray, AD; Power, ML; Zinberg, S; Schulkin, J
Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey, 61(): 742-748.

Journal of Perinatology
What factors are associated with neonatal injury following shoulder dystocia?
Mehta, SH; Blackwell, SC; Bujold, E; Sokol, RJ
Journal of Perinatology, 26(2): 85-88.
10.1038/sj.jp.7211441
CrossRef
Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Fetal growth restriction and other risk factors for stillbirth in a New Zealand setting
McCowan, LME; George-Haddad, M; Stacey, T; Thompson, JMD
Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 47(6): 450-456.
10.1111/j.1479-828X.2007.00778.x
CrossRef
Pediatric Neurology
Obstetrical brachial plexus palsy
Zafeiriou, DI; Psychogiou, K
Pediatric Neurology, 38(4): 235-242.
10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2007.09.013
CrossRef
Seminars in Perinatology
Epidemiology of stillbirth and fetal central nervous system
Salihu, HM
Seminars in Perinatology, 32(4): 232-238.
10.1053/j.semperi.2008.04.002
CrossRef
Journal of the American Dietetic Association
Dietary Restraint and Gestational Weight Gain
Mumford, SL; Siega-Riz, AM; Herring, A; Evenson, KR
Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 108(): 1646-1653.
10.1016/j.jada.2008.07.016
CrossRef
Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica
First-trimester maternal plasma cytokine levels, pre-pregnancy body mass index, and spontaneous preterm delivery
Curry, AE; Thorsen, P; Drews, C; Schendel, D; Skogstrand, K; Flanders, WD; Hougaard, D; Olsen, J; Vogel, I
Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 88(3): 332-342.
10.1080/00016340802702219
CrossRef
International Journal of Obesity
Resistance exercise training during pregnancy and newborn's birth size: a randomised controlled trial
Barakat, R; Lucia, A; Ruiz, JR
International Journal of Obesity, 33(9): 1048-1057.
10.1038/ijo.2009.150
CrossRef
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Insulin-sensitising drugs (metformin, rosiglitazone, pioglitazone, D-chiro-inositol) for women with polycystic ovary syndrome, oligo amenorrhoea and subfertility
Tang, T; Lord, JM; Norman, RJ; Yasmin, E; Balen, AH
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (4): -.
ARTN CD003053
CrossRef
Anesthesiology
The influence of morbid obesity on the incidence of cesarean delivery
Mhyre, JM; Greenfield, MV; Polley, LS; Johnson, TR
Anesthesiology, 102(5): A12.

Womens Health Issues
Achieving safe motherhood: Applying a life course and multiple determinants perinatal health framework in public health
Misra, DP; Grason, H
Womens Health Issues, 16(4): 159-175.
10.1016/j.whi.2006.02.006
CrossRef
Journal of Womens Health
Pregnancy and obesity: A review and agenda for future research
Sarwer, DB; Allison, KC; Gibbons, LM; Markowitz, JT; Nelson, DB
Journal of Womens Health, 15(6): 720-733.

Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Women with gestational diabetes mellitus in the ACHOIS trial: Risk factors for shoulder dystocia
Athukorala, C; Crowther, CA; Willson, K
Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 47(1): 37-41.
10.1111/j.1479-828X.2006.00676.x
CrossRef
Bjog-An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Obesity in pregnancy: a study of the impact of maternal obesity on NHS maternity services
Heslehurst, N; Lang, R; Rankin, J; Wilkinson, JR; Summerbell, CD
Bjog-An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 114(3): 334-342.
10.1111/j.1471-0528.2006.01230.x
CrossRef
American Journal of Epidemiology
The association of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy with weight gain over the subsequent 21 years: Findings from a prospective cohort study
Callaway, LK; Mclntyre, HD; O'Callaghan, M; Williams, GM; Najman, JM; Lawlor, DA
American Journal of Epidemiology, 166(4): 421-428.
10.1093/aje/kwm099
CrossRef
Bariatric Nursing and Surgical Patient Care
Pregnancy outcomes after bariatric surgery
Syin, D; Magnuson, T; Flum, D; Steele, K; Griffith, J; Nicholson, WK; Uddin, S; Millman, EA; Schweitzer, M; Pawlik, TM; Chang, DC; Pronovost, PJ; Makary, MA
Bariatric Nursing and Surgical Patient Care, 2(2): 113-117.
10.1089/bar.2006.9979
CrossRef
Drugs
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors - Do they have potential in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome?
Kodaman, PH; Duleba, AJ
Drugs, 68(): 1771-1785.

Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Severe shoulder dystocia leading to neonatal injury: a case control study
Melendez, J; Bhatia, R; Callis, L; Woolf, V; Yoong, W
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 279(1): 47-51.
10.1007/s00404-008-0668-6
CrossRef
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Racial and ethnic disparities in the trends in primary cesarean delivery based on indications
Getahun, D; Strickland, D; Lawrence, JM; Fassett, MJ; Koebnick, C; Jacobsen, SJ
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 201(4): -.
ARTN 422.e1
CrossRef
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Insulin-sensitising drugs (metformin, rosiglitazone, pioglitazone, D-chiro-inositol) for women with polycystic ovary syndrome, oligo amenorrhoea and subfertility
Tang, T; Lord, JM; Norman, RJ; Yasmin, E; Balen, AH
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (1): -.
ARTN CD003053
CrossRef
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
The effect of maternal body mass index on neonatal outcome in women receiving a single course of antenatal corticosteroids
Hashima, JN; Lai, YL; Wapner, RJ; Sorokin, Y; Dudley, DJ; Peaceman, A; Spong, CY; Iams, JD; Leveno, KJ; Harper, M; Caritis, SN; Varner, M; Miodovnik, M; Mercer, BM; Thorp, JM; O'Sullivan, MJ; Ramin, SM; Carpenter, M; Rouse, DJ; Sibai, B
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 202(3): -.
ARTN 263.e1
CrossRef
Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Management of maternal obesity prior to and during pregnancy
Shaikh, H; Robinson, S; Teoh, TG
Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 15(2): 77-82.
10.1016/j.siny.2009.10.003
CrossRef
Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Obesity in pregnancy: outcomes and economics
Rowlands, I; Graves, N; de Jersey, S; McIntyre, HD; Callaway, L
Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 15(2): 94-99.
10.1016/j.siny.2009.09.003
CrossRef
American Journal of Perinatology
Obstetric Outcomes in Normal Weight and Obese Women in Relation to Gestational Weight Gain: Comparison between Institute of Medicine Guidelines and Cedergren Criteria
Potti, S; Sliwinski, CS; Jain, NJ; Dandolu, V
American Journal of Perinatology, 27(5): 415-420.
10.1055/s-0029-1243369
CrossRef
Human Reproduction
Combined lifestyle modification and metformin in obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind multicentre study
Tang, T; Glanville, J; Hayden, CJ; White, D; Barth, JH; Balen, AH
Human Reproduction, 21(1): 80-89.
10.1093/humrep/dei311
CrossRef
British Medical Journal
Should obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome receive treatment for infertility? Given the risks such women will face in pregnancy, they should lose weight first
Balen, AH; Dresner, MT; Scott, EM; Drife, JO
British Medical Journal, 332(): 434-435.

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Maternal hormones linking maternal body mass index and dietary intake to birth weight
Jansson, N; Nilsfelt, A; Gellerstedt, M; Wennergren, M; Rossander-Hulthen, L; Powell, TL; Jansson, T
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 87(6): 1743-1749.

American Journal of Perinatology
The Impact of Maternal Obesity on the Incidence of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in High-Risk Term Pregnancies
Joy, S; Istwan, N; Rhea, D; Desch, C; Stanziano, G
American Journal of Perinatology, 26(5): 345-349.
10.1055/s-0028-1110084
CrossRef
Obstetrics and Gynecology
Success of Programming Fetal Growth Phenotypes Among Obese Women
Salihu, HM; Mbah, AK; Alio, AP; Kornosky, JL; Bruder, K; Belogolovkin, V
Obstetrics and Gynecology, 114(2): 333-339.

European Journal of Epidemiology
The effects of maternal body mass index on pregnancy outcome
Khashan, AS; Kenny, LC
European Journal of Epidemiology, 24(): 697-705.
10.1007/s10654-009-9375-2
CrossRef
Contraception
Contraceptive use by obese women 1 year postpartum
Chin, JR; Swamy, GK; Ostbye, T; Bastian, LA
Contraception, 80(5): 463-468.
10.1016/j.contraception.2009.03.017
CrossRef
Fertility and Sterility
Impact of bariatric surgery on female reproduction
Merhi, ZO
Fertility and Sterility, 92(5): 1501-1508.
10.1016/j.fertnstert.2009.06.046
CrossRef
International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics
Delivery of the posterior arm reduces shoulder dimensions in shoulder dystocia
Kung, J; Swan, A; Arulkumaran, S
International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 93(3): 233-237.
10.1016/j.ijgo.2006.02.026
CrossRef
Bjog-An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Maternal obesity in pregnancy: is it time for meaningful research to inform preventive and management strategies?
Krishnamoorthy, U; Schram, CMH; Hill, SR
Bjog-An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 113(): 1134-1140.
10.1111/j.1471-0528.2006.01045.x
CrossRef
International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics
Pre-pregnancy body mass index and pregnancy outcomes
Doherty, DA; Magann, EF; Francis, J; Morrison, JC; Newnham, JP
International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 95(3): 242-247.
10.1016/j.ijgo.2006.06.021
CrossRef
Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association
A 27-year-old woman with a diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome
Legro, RS
Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association, 297(5): 509-519.

Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Population-based Swedish studies of outcomes after in vitro fertilisation
Nygren, KG; Finnstrom, O; Kallen, B; Olausson, PO
Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 86(7): 774-782.
10.1080/00016340701446231
CrossRef
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Hyperemesis gravidarum that requires hospitalization and the use of antiemetic drugs in relation to maternal body composition
Cedergren, M; Brynhildsen, J; Josefsson, A; Sydsjo, A; Sydsjo, G
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 198(4): -.
ARTN 412.e1
CrossRef
Journal of Perinatal Medicine
Do risk factors for elective cesarean section differ from those of cesarean section during labor in low risk pregnancies?
Roman, H; Blondel, B; Breart, G; Goffinet, F
Journal of Perinatal Medicine, 36(4): 297-305.
10.1515/JPM.2008.044
CrossRef
Surgical Endoscopy and Other Interventional Techniques
The surgical management of obesity in young women: consideration of the mother's and baby's health before, during, and after pregnancy
Grundy, MA; Woodcock, S; Attwood, SE
Surgical Endoscopy and Other Interventional Techniques, 22(): 2107-2116.
10.1007/s00464-008-0019-5
CrossRef
Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Weight gain restriction during pregnancy is safe for both the mother and neonate
Claesson, IM; Brynhildsen, J; Cedergren, M; Jeppsson, A; Sydsjo, A; Josefsson, A
Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 88(): 1158-1162.
10.1080/00016340903214916
CrossRef
Public Health Nursing
Developing Health Promotion Interventions: A Multisource Method Applied to Weight Loss Among Low-Income Postpartum Women
Walker, LO; Kim, S; Sterling, BS; Latimer, L
Public Health Nursing, 27(2): 188-195.
10.1111/j.1525-1446.2010.00841.x
CrossRef
Midwifery
Maternal obesity and pregnancy: a retrospective study
Kerrigan, AM; Kingdon, C
Midwifery, 26(1): 138-146.
10.1016/j.midw.2008.12.005
CrossRef
Contemporary Clinical Trials
Estimating live birth rates after ovulation induction in polycystic ovary syndrome: Sample size calculations for the pregnancy in polycystic ovary syndrome trial
Myers, ER; Silva, SG; Hafley, G; Kunselman, AR; Nestler, JE; Legro, RS
Contemporary Clinical Trials, 26(3): 271-280.
10.1016/j.cct.2005.01.006
CrossRef
Archivos Latinoamericanos De Nutricion
Body Mass Index in a group of Venezuelan pregnant women and its relationship with the newborns' anthropometry
Jaeger, AS; Vargas, SID; Rodriguez, LS; Perdomo, EP; Baron, MA
Archivos Latinoamericanos De Nutricion, 56(2): 141-145.

American Journal of Surgery
Pregnancy outcomes after gastric-bypass surgery
Dao, T; Kuhn, J; Ehmer, D; Fisher, T; McCarty, T
American Journal of Surgery, 192(6): 762-765.
10.1016/j.amjsurg.2006.08.041
CrossRef
Obstetrics and Gynecology
Gestational weight gain and adverse neonatal outcome among term infants
Stotland, NE; Cheng, YW; Hopkins, LM; Caughey, AB
Obstetrics and Gynecology, 108(3): 635-643.

American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Maternal obesity and risk of stillbirth: a metaanalysis
Chu, SY; Kim, SY; Lau, J; Schmid, CH; Dietz, PM; Callaghan, WM; Curtis, KM
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 197(3): 223-228.
10.1016/j.ajog.2007.03.027
CrossRef
Maternal and Child Health Journal
Weight loss programs for urban-based, postpartum african-american women: Perceived barriers and preferred components
Setse, R; Grogan, R; Cooper, LA; Strobino, D; Powe, NR; Nicholson, W
Maternal and Child Health Journal, 12(1): 119-127.
10.1007/s10995-007-0211-6
CrossRef
Archives De Pediatrie
Very preterm birth: Should we be interested in maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index?
Afroukh, NH; Burguet, A; Thiriez, G; Mulin, B; Bouthet, MF; Abraham, L; Boisselier, P; Villemonteix, P; Bauer, V; Lathelize, J; Pierre, F
Archives De Pediatrie, 15(6): 1068-1075.
10.1016/j.arcped.2008.02.005
CrossRef
Best Practice & Research in Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Aims of obstetric critical care management
Price, LC; Slack, A; Nelson-Piercy, C
Best Practice & Research in Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 22(5): 775-799.
10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2008.06.001
CrossRef
Human Reproduction Update
Insulin sensitizing drugs for weight loss in women of reproductive age who are overweight or obese: systematic review and meta-analysis
Nieuwenhuis-Ruifrok, AE; Kuchenbecker, WKH; Hoek, A; Middleton, P; Norman, RJ
Human Reproduction Update, 15(1): 57-68.
10.1093/humupd/dmn043
CrossRef
Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in the Adolescent
Pfeifer, SM; Kives, S
Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America, 36(1): 129-+.
10.1016/j.ogc.2008.12.004
CrossRef
Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America
Exercise Prescription for Overweight and Obese Women: Pregnancy and Postpartum
Mottola, MF
Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America, 36(2): 301-+.
10.1016/j.ogc.2009.03.005
CrossRef
Birth Defects Research Part A-Clinical and Molecular Teratology
Maternal Obesity and Morbid Obesity: the Risk for Birth Defects in the Offspring
Blomberg, MI; Kallen, B
Birth Defects Research Part A-Clinical and Molecular Teratology, 88(1): 35-40.
10.1002/bdra.20620
CrossRef
Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Is grandmultiparity an independent risk factor for adverse perinatal outcomes?
Yasmeen, S; Danielsen, B; Moshesh, M; Gilbert, WM
Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 17(4): 277-280.
10.1080/14767050500123798
CrossRef
Obesity
Transition from overweight to obesity worsens pregnancy outcome in a BMI-dependent manner
Raatikainen, K; Heiskanen, N; Heinonen, S
Obesity, 14(1): 165-171.

Bjog-An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Obesity in pregnancy
Yu, CKH; Teoh, TG; Robinson, S
Bjog-An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 113(): 1117-1125.
10.1111/j.1471-0528.2006.00991.x
CrossRef
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Genetic epidemiologic studies of preterm birth: guidelines for research
Pennell, CE; Jacobsson, B; Williams, SM; Buns, RM; Muglia, LJ; Dolan, SM; Morken, NH; Ozcelik, H; Lye, SJ; Relton, C
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 196(2): 107-118.
10.1016/j.ajog.2006.03.109
CrossRef
Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Management of obesity in GDM: Old habits die hard
Langer, O
Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 21(3): 165-171.
10.1080/14767050801929877
CrossRef
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Obesity and pregnancy
Dixit, A; Girling, JC
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 28(1): 14-23.
10.1080/01443610701814203
CrossRef
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
A prospective study of pregnancy outcome and biomarkers of oxidative stress in nulliparous obese women
Rajasingam, D; Seed, PT; Briley, AL; Shennan, AH; Poston, L
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 200(4): -.
ARTN 395.e1
CrossRef
Journal of Community Health Nursing
Altered Perceptions of Personal Control About Retained Weight and Depressive Symptoms in Low-Income Postpartum Women
Sterling, BS; Fowles, ER; Garcia, AA; Jenkins, SK; Wilkinson, S; Kim, M; Kim, S; Latimer, L; Walker, LO
Journal of Community Health Nursing, 26(3): 143-157.
10.1080/07370010903034524
CrossRef
International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
Morbidly obese patients should not be anaesthetised by trainees without supervision
McCrae, AF
International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia, 18(4): 373-378.
10.1016/j.ijoa.2009.04.005
CrossRef
Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Maternal obesity is a potential source of error in mid-trimester ultrasound estimation of gestational age
Simic, M; Wahlin, IA; Marsal, K; Kallen, K
Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology, 35(1): 48-53.
10.1002/uog.7502
CrossRef
Obesity Facts
Maternal Morbid Obesity and Obstetric Outcomes
Farah, N; Maher, N; Barry, S; Kennelly, M; Stuart, B; Turner, MJ
Obesity Facts, 2(6): 352-354.
10.1159/000261951
CrossRef
Obstetrics and Gynecology
Fetal Anomalies in Obese Women The Contribution of Diabetes
Biggio, JR; Chapman, V; Neely, C; Cliver, SP; Rouse, DJ
Obstetrics and Gynecology, 115(2): 290-296.

Bjog-An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Hyperglycaemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) Study: associations with maternal body mass index
Metzger, BE
Bjog-An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 117(5): 575-584.
10.1111/j.1471-0528.2009.02486.x
CrossRef
Qualitative Health Research
Sterilization Decision Making Among Medically At-Risk Obese Pregnant Women
Hastings-Tolsma, M; Clark, L; Nodine, P; Teal, S
Qualitative Health Research, 20(6): 743-754.
10.1177/1049732310364626
CrossRef
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Population-based trends and correlates of maternal overweight and obesity, Utah 1991-2001
LaCoursiere, DY; Bloebaum, L; Duncan, JD; Varner, MW
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 192(3): 832-839.
10.1016/j.ajog.2004.11.034
CrossRef
Anesthesia and Analgesia
Labor and delivery management of the morbidly obese parturient
Hawkins, JL
Anesthesia and Analgesia, (): 36-39.

Journal of Perinatal Medicine
Maternal obesity and complications during pregnancy
Dietl, J
Journal of Perinatal Medicine, 33(2): 100-105.
10.1515/JPM.2005.018
CrossRef
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Overweight and obese in gestational diabetes: The impact on pregnancy outcome
Langer, O; Yogev, Y; Xenakis, EMJ; Brustman, L
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 192(6): 1768-1776.
10.1016/j.ajog.2004.12.049
CrossRef
Maternal and Child Health Journal
Population-based assessment of the risk of primary cesarean delivery due to excess prepregnancy weight among nulliparous women delivering term infants
Dietz, PM; Callaghan, WM; Morrow, B; Cogswell, ME
Maternal and Child Health Journal, 9(3): 237-244.
10.1007/s10995-005-0003-9
CrossRef
Birth Defects Research Part A-Clinical and Molecular Teratology
Teratology public affairs committee position paper: Maternal obesity and pregnancy
Scialli, AR
Birth Defects Research Part A-Clinical and Molecular Teratology, 76(2): 73-77.
10.1002/bdra.20236
CrossRef
Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism-Physiologie Appliquee Nutrition Et Metabolisme
Exercise in the prevention and treatment of maternal-fetal disease: a review of the literature
Weissgerber, TL; Wolfe, LA; Davies, GAL; Mottola, MF
Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism-Physiologie Appliquee Nutrition Et Metabolisme, 31(6): 661-674.
10.1139/H06-060
CrossRef
Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Telemetric monitoring of blood pressure and body weight during pregnancy
Middeke, M; Kohler, F; Schweizer, T; Dudenhausen, JW
Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift, 132(9): 437-441.
10.1055/s-2007-970354
CrossRef
Obesity Reviews
Maternal obesity and risk of cesarean delivery: a meta-analysis
Chu, SY; Kim, SY; Schmid, CH; Dietz, PM; Callaghan, WM; Lau, J; Curtis, KM
Obesity Reviews, 8(5): 385-394.
10.1111/j.1467-789X.2007.00397.x
CrossRef
Annals of Epidemiology
Use of spline regression in an analysis of maternal prepregnancy body mass index and adverse birth outcomes: Does it tell us more than we already know?
Gilboa, SM; Correa, A; Alverson, CJ
Annals of Epidemiology, 18(3): 196-205.
10.1016/j.annepidem.2007.09.0C5
CrossRef
Jognn-Journal of Obstetric Gynecologic and Neonatal Nursing
Effects of obesity on pregnancy
Smith, SA; Hulsey, T; Goodnight, W
Jognn-Journal of Obstetric Gynecologic and Neonatal Nursing, 37(2): 176-184.
10.1111/j.1552-6909.2008.00222.x
CrossRef
Obesity
Maternal obesity: A problem for both mother and child
Rasmussen, KM; Kjolhede, CL
Obesity, 16(5): 929-931.
10.1038/oby.2008.36
CrossRef
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Prepregnancy body mass index and adverse pregnancy outcomes
Driul, L; Cacciaguerra, G; Citossi, A; Della Martina, M; Peressini, L; Marchesoni, D
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 278(1): 23-26.
10.1007/s00404-007-0524-0
CrossRef
Fertility and Sterility
Obesity and reproduction: an educational bulletin
[Anon]
Fertility and Sterility, 90(): S21-S29.
10.1016/j.fertnstert.2008.08.005
CrossRef
International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics
Effect of bariatric surgery on pregnancy outcome
Weintraub, AY; Levy, A; Levi, I; Mazor, M; Wiznitzer, A; Sheiner, E
International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 103(3): 246-251.
10.1016/j.ijgo.2008.07.008
CrossRef
Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
Prepregnancy Body Mass Index and Gestational Weight Gain and Their Association with Some Pregnancy Outcomes
Yazdanpanahi, Z; Forouhari, S; Parsanezhad, ME
Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal, 10(4): 326-331.

Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics
Identification of 'hot spots' of obesity and being underweight in early pregnancy in Liverpool
Abayomi, JC; Watkinson, H; Boothby, J; Topping, J; Hackett, AF
Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 22(3): 246-254.
10.1111/j.1365-277X.2009.00956.x
CrossRef
Plos One
Severe Obesity in Young Women and Reproductive Health: The Danish National Birth Cohort
Nohr, EA; Timpson, NJ; Andersen, CS; Smith, GD; Olsen, J; Sorensen, TIA
Plos One, 4(): -.
ARTN e8444
CrossRef
Hypertension in Pregnancy
Obesity and the Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy
Callaway, LK; O'Callaghan, M; McIntyre, HD
Hypertension in Pregnancy, 28(4): 473-493.
10.3109/10641950802629626
CrossRef
Human Reproduction Update
Brain imaging studies of appetite in the context of obesity and the menstrual cycle
Van Vugt, DA
Human Reproduction Update, 16(3): 276-292.
10.1093/humupd/dmp051
CrossRef
Recent Advances in Prenatal Genetic Diagnosis
Perinatal outcomes regarding to the risk factors and the efficacy of the treatment of diabetes
Garamvolgyi, Z; Rigo, J; Krasznai, I; Hidvegi, J; Papp, Z
Recent Advances in Prenatal Genetic Diagnosis, (): 171-174.

International Journal of Obesity
Burden of disease attributable to obesity and overweight in Korea
Park, JH; Yoon, SJ; Lee, H; Jo, HS; Lee, SI; Kim, Y; Kim, YI; Shin, Y
International Journal of Obesity, 30(): 1661-1669.
10.1038/sj.ijo.0803321
CrossRef
Medical Clinics of North America
Improvement in infertility and pregnancy outcomes after weight loss surgery
Patel, JA; Colella, JJ; Esaka, E; Patel, NA; Thomas, RL
Medical Clinics of North America, 91(3): 515-+.
10.1016/j.mcna.2007.01.002
CrossRef
Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
The effect of low body mass index on the development of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia
Belogolovkin, V; Eddleman, KA; Malone, FD; Sullivan, L; Ball, RH; Nyberg, DA; Comstock, CH; Hankins, GDV; Carter, S; Dugoff, L; Craigo, SD; Timor-Tritsch, IE; Carr, SR; Wolfe, HM; D'Alton, ME
Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 20(7): 509-513.
10.1080/14767050701420027
CrossRef
Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Snoring, witnessed sleep apnoeas and pregnancy-induced hypertension
Perez-Chada, D; Videla, AJ; O'Flaherty, ME; Majul, C; Catalini, AM; Caballer, CA; Franklin, KA
Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 86(7): 788-792.
10.1080/00016340701281919
CrossRef
West Indian Medical Journal
Obstetrical and neonatal outcomes in obese women
Roman, H; Robillard, PY; Hulsey, TC; Laffitte, A; Kouteich, K; Marpeau, L; Barau, G
West Indian Medical Journal, 56(5): 421-426.

Agro Food Industry Hi-Tech
The relationship between pregnancy and obesity: a call for further research
Allison, KC; Sarwer, DB; Wells, SR
Agro Food Industry Hi-Tech, 18(1): 28-31.

Gynecologie Obstetrique & Fertilite
Pregnancy in obese patients: which risks is it necessary to fear?
Ducarme, G; Rodrigues, A; Aissaoui, F; Davitian, C; Pharisien, I; Uzan, M
Gynecologie Obstetrique & Fertilite, 35(1): 19-24.
10.1016/j.gyobfe.2006.10.029
CrossRef
International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics
Maternal obesity and neonatal congenital cardiovascular defects
Khalil, HS; Saleh, AM; Subhani, SN
International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 102(3): 232-236.
10.1016/j.ijgo.2008.05.005
CrossRef
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Breastfeeding reduces postpartum weight retention
Baker, JL; Gamborg, M; Heitmann, BL; Lissner, L; Sorensen, TIA; Rasmussen, KM
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 88(6): 1543-1551.
10.3945/ajcn.2008.26379
CrossRef
Bjog-An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in women with previous pre-eclampsia or small-for-gestational-age offspring
Berends, AL; Zillikens, MC; de Groot, CJM; Rivadeneira, F; Oostra, BA; van Duijn, CM; Steegers, EAP
Bjog-An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 116(3): 442-450.
10.1111/j.1471-0528.2008.02044.x
CrossRef
Endocrine Reviews
Evidence-Based and Potential Benefits of Metformin in the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Comprehensive Review
Palomba, S; Falbo, A; Zullo, F; Orio, F
Endocrine Reviews, 30(1): 1-50.
10.1210/er.2008-0030
CrossRef
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Uric acid concentrations are associated with insulin resistance and birthweight in normotensive pregnant women
Laughon, SK; Catov, J; Roberts, JM
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 201(6): -.
ARTN 582.e1
CrossRef
Journal of Adolescent Health
Joint Effect of Obesity and Teenage Pregnancy on the Risk of Preeclampsia: A Population-Based Study
Aliyu, MH; Luke, S; Kristensen, S; Alio, AP; Salihu, HM
Journal of Adolescent Health, 46(1): 77-82.
10.1016/j.jadohealth.2009.06.006
CrossRef
Human Reproduction Update
Nutrition and reproduction in women
Baird, DT; Cnattingius, S; Collins, J; Evers, JLH; Glasier, A; Heitmann, BL; Norman, RJ; Ong, KK; Sunde, A; Cohen, J; Cometti, B; Crosignani, PG; Devroey, P; Diczfalusy, E; Diedrich, K; Fraser, L; Gianaroli, L; Liebaers, I; Mautone, G; Ragni, G; Tarlatzis, B; Van Steirteghem, A
Human Reproduction Update, 12(3): 193-207.
10.1093/humupd/dmk003
CrossRef
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Shared and disparate components of the pathophysiologies of fetal growth restriction and preeclampsia
Ness, RB; Sibai, BM
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 195(1): 40-49.
10.1016/j.ajog.2005.07.049
CrossRef
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Obstetric outcomes in overweight and obese adolescents
Sukalich, S; Mingione, MJ; Glantz, C
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 195(3): 851-855.
10.1016/j.ajog.2006.06.070
CrossRef
American Journal of Public Health
Maternal obesity in early pregnancy and risk of spontaneous and elective preterm deliveries: A retrospective cohort study
Smith, GCS; Shah, I; Pell, JP; Crossley, JA; Dobbie, R
American Journal of Public Health, 97(1): 157-162.
10.2105/AJPH.2005.074294
CrossRef
New England Journal of Medicine
Clomiphene, metformin, or both for infertility in the polycystic ovary syndrome
Legro, RS; Barnhart, HX; Schlaff, WD; Carr, BR; Diamond, MP; Carson, SA; Steinkampf, MP; Coutifaris, C; McGovern, PG; Cataldo, NA; Gosman, GG; Nestler, JE; Giudice, LC; Leppert, PC; Myers, ER
New England Journal of Medicine, 356(6): 551-566.

Obesity
Trends in pre-pregnancy obesity in nine states, 1993-2003
Kim, SY; Dietz, PM; England, L; Morrow, B; Callaghan, WM
Obesity, 15(4): 986-993.

Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism
Obesity: a risk factor for preeclampsia
Walsh, SW
Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism, 18(): 365-370.
10.1016/j.tem.2007.09.003
CrossRef
Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Maternal body mass index at delivery and risk of caesarean due to dystocia in low risk pregnancies
Roman, H; Goffinet, F; Hulsey, TF; Newman, R; Robillard, PY; Hulsey, TC
Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 87(2): 163-170.
10.1080/00016340701762975
CrossRef
Midwifery
Consumer satisfaction with a weight-gain intervention programme for obese pregnant women
Claesson, IM; Josefsson, A; Cedergren, M; Brynhildsen, J; Jeppsson, A; Nystrom, F; Sydsjo, A; Sydsjo, G
Midwifery, 24(2): 163-167.
10.1016/j.midw.2006.10.007
CrossRef
Human Reproduction
Extreme obesity and risk of placental abruption
Salihu, HM; Lynch, O; Alio, AP; Kornosky, JL; Clayton, HB; Mbah, AK
Human Reproduction, 24(2): 438-444.
10.1093/humrep/den421
CrossRef
Salud I Ciencia
Could the viscous cycle of obesity be restricted?
Weintraub, AY; Sheiner, E
Salud I Ciencia, 17(1): 34-36.

British Medical Journal
Sexuality and obesity, a gender perspective: results from French national random probability survey of sexual behaviours
Bajos, N; Wellings, K; Laborde, C; Moreau, C
British Medical Journal, 340(): -.
ARTN c2573
CrossRef
American Journal of Perinatology
Maternal obesity: Can pregnancy weight gain modify risk of selected adverse pregnancy outcomes?
Jain, NJ; Denk, CE; Kruse, LK; Dandolu, V
American Journal of Perinatology, 24(5): 291-298.
10.1055/s-2007-981432
CrossRef
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Antithrombotic therapy and pregnancy: consensus report and recommendations for prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism and adverse pregnancy outcomes
Duhl, AJ; Paidas, MJ; Ural, SH; Branch, W; Casele, H; Cox-Gill, J; Hamersley, SL; Hyers, TM; Katz, V; Kuhlmann, R; Nutescu, EA; Thorp, JA; Zehnder, JL
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 197(5): -.
ARTN 457.e1
CrossRef
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Early pregnancy lipid concentrations and spontaneous preterm birth
Catov, JM; Bodnar, LM; Kip, KE; Hubel, C; Ness, RB; Harger, G; Roberts, JM
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 197(6): -.
ARTN 610.e1
CrossRef
Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Obesity and diabetes: A recipe for obstetric complications
Rosenn, B
Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 21(3): 159-164.
10.1080/14767050801929455
CrossRef
Thorax
Is maternal asthma a life or death issue for the baby?
Schatz, M
Thorax, 64(2): 93-95.
10.1136/thx.2008.105189
CrossRef
Journal of the National Medical Association
Perinatal Outcomes in Nutritionally Monitored Obese Pregnant Women: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Thornton, YS; Smarkola, C; Kopacz, SM; Ishoof, SB
Journal of the National Medical Association, 101(6): 569-577.

Maturitas
Obesity in older mothers, gestational weight gain, and risk for preterm phenotypes estimates
Aliyu, MH; Luke, S; Wilson, RE; Saidu, R; Alio, AP; Salihu, HM; Belogolovkin, V
Maturitas, 66(1): 88-93.
10.1016/j.maturitas.2010.02.016
CrossRef
Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Maternal and anthropomorphic risk factors for shoulder dystocia
Mazouni, C; Porcu, G; Cohen-Solal, E; Heckenroth, H; Guidicelli, B; Bonnier, P; Gamerre, M
Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 85(5): 567-570.
10.1080/00016340600605044
CrossRef
Jognn-Journal of Obstetric Gynecologic and Neonatal Nursing
Caring for obese pregnant women
Morin, KH; Reilly, L
Jognn-Journal of Obstetric Gynecologic and Neonatal Nursing, 36(5): 482-489.
10.1111/J.1552-6909.2007.00182.x
CrossRef
Bjog-An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
The risk of unexplained antepartum stillbirth in second pregnancies following caesarean section in the first pregnancy
Wood, SL; Chen, S; Ross, S; Sauve, R
Bjog-An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 115(6): 726-731.
10.1111/j.1471-0528.2008.01705.x
CrossRef
Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Obesity - More than non-communicable diseases
Fegan, D; Glennon, MJ; Mcnamara, B
Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 48(3): 353-354.
10.1111/j.1479-828X.2008.00880.x
CrossRef
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Combined associations of prepregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain with the outcome of pregnancy
Nohr, EA; Vaeth, M; Baker, JL; Sorensen, TIA; Olsen, J; Rasmussen, KM
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 87(6): 1750-1759.

American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Late recognition of pregnancy as a predictor of adverse birth outcomes
Ayoola, AB; Stommel, M; Nettleman, MD
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 201(2): -.
ARTN 156.e1
CrossRef
Human Reproduction
Should access to fertility treatment be determined by female body mass index?
Pandey, S; Maheshwari, A; Bhattacharya, S
Human Reproduction, 25(4): 815-820.
10.1093/humrep/deq013
CrossRef
Critical Care Clinics
Airway problems in pregnancy
Munnur, U; Suresh, MS
Critical Care Clinics, 20(4): 617-+.
10.1016/j.ccc.2004.05.011
CrossRef
Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation
Obesity and Clomiphene Challenge Test as predictors of outcome of in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection
van Swieten, ECAM; van der Leeuw-Harmsen, L; Badings, EA; van der Linden, PJQ
Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation, 59(4): 220-224.
10.1159/000084347
CrossRef
Bjog-An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Outcome of pregnancy in a woman with an increased body mass index
Kiran, TSU; Hemmadi, S; Bethel, J; Evans, J
Bjog-An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 112(6): 768-772.
10.1111/j.1471-0528.2004.00546.x
CrossRef
Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
Omphalocoele-exstrophy-imperforate anus-spinal defects complex in dizygotic twins
Noack, F; Sayk, F; Gembruch, U
Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy, 20(5): 346-348.
10.1159/000086810
CrossRef
Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation
Effect of weight loss by bariatric surgery on the risk of miscarriage
Merhi, ZO; Pal, L
Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation, 64(4): 224-227.
10.1159/000106495
CrossRef
Public Health Reports
Maternal obesity and risk of infant death based on Florida birth records for 2004
Thompson, DR; Clark, CL; Wood, B; Beth, M
Public Health Reports, 123(4): 487-493.

American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Pregnancy: a "teachable moment" for weight control and obesity prevention
Phelan, S
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 202(2): -.
ARTN 135.e1
CrossRef
Monatsschrift Kinderheilkunde
Prenatal prevention of childhood obesity
Plagemann, A; Harder, T; Rodekamp, E
Monatsschrift Kinderheilkunde, 158(6): 542-+.
10.1007/s00112-009-2157-9
CrossRef
Contraception
Family planning for obese women: challenges and opportunities
Grimes, DA; Shields, WC
Contraception, 72(1): 1-4.
10.1016/j.contraception.2005.04.002
CrossRef
Bjog-An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Poor uterine contractility in obese women
Zhang, J; Bricker, L; Wray, S; Quenby, S
Bjog-An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 114(3): 343-348.
10.1111/j.1471-0528.2006.01233.x
CrossRef
International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics
Obstetric outcome following laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding
Ducarme, G; Revaux, A; Rodrigues, A; Aissaoui, F; Pharisien, I; Uzan, M
International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 98(3): 244-247.
10.1016/j.ijgo.2007.02.020
CrossRef
Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Pre-pregnancy body mass index and weight gain during pregnancy in relation to preterm delivery subtypes
Rudra, CB; Frederick, IO; Williams, MA
Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 87(5): 510-517.
10.1080/00016340801996838
CrossRef
American Journal of Epidemiology
Obesity subtypes and risk of spontaneous versus medically indicated preterm births in singletons and twins
Salihu, HM; Lynch, O; Alio, AP; Liu, JH
American Journal of Epidemiology, 168(1): 13-20.
10.1093/aje/kwn092
CrossRef
International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
Maternal obesity and anaesthesia
Wellesley, H; Wharton, NM
International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia, 17(3): 279-280.
10.1016/j.ijoa.2008.01.008
CrossRef
Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Maternal BMI and preterm birth: A systematic review of the literature with meta-analysis
Torloni, MR; Betran, AP; Daher, S; Widmer, M; Dolan, SM; Menon, R; Bergel, E; Allen, T; Merialdi, M
Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 22(): 957-970.
10.3109/14767050903042561
CrossRef
Obesity
Maternal Obesity and Breast-feeding Practices Among White and Black Women
Liu, JH; Smith, MG; Dobre, MA; Ferguson, JE
Obesity, 18(1): 175-182.
10.1038/oby.2009.182
CrossRef
Reproductive Sciences
Maternal Obesity and its Relationship With Spontaneous and Oxytocin-Induced Contractility of Human Myometrium In Vitro
Higgins, CA; Martin, W; Anderson, L; Blanks, AM; Norman, JE; McConnachie, A; Nelson, SM
Reproductive Sciences, 17(2): 177-185.
10.1177/1933719109349780
CrossRef
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Intrapartum interventions for preventing shoulder dystocia
Athukorala, C; Middleton, P; Crowther, CA
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (4): -.
ARTN CD005543
CrossRef
European Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology and Reproductive Biology
Maternal morbidity associated with obstetrical maneuvers in shoulder dystocia
Mazouni, C; Menard, JP; Porcu, G; Cohen-Solal, E; Heckenroth, H; Gamerre, M; Bretelle, F
European Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 129(1): 15-18.
10.1016/j.ejogrb.2005.11.006
CrossRef
Journal of Reproductive Medicine
Cesarean birth in the morbidly obese woman - A report of 3 cases
Porreco, RP; Adelberg, AM; Lindsay, LG; Holdt, DG
Journal of Reproductive Medicine, 52(3): 231-234.

Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
The impact of maternal age, body mass index and maternal weight gain on the glucose challenge test in pregnancy
Hackmon, R; James, R; Green, CO; Ferber, A; Barnhard, Y; Divon, M
Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 20(3): 253-257.
10.1080/14767050601135220
CrossRef
Reproductive Sciences
Contractility and calcium signaling of human myometrium are profoundly affected by cholesterol manipulation: Implications for labor?
Zhang, J; Kendrick, A; Quenby, S; Wray, S
Reproductive Sciences, 14(5): 456-466.
10.1177/1933719107306229
CrossRef
Annual Review of Nutrition
Association of maternal obesity before conception with poor lactation performance
Rasmussen, KM
Annual Review of Nutrition, 27(): 103-121.
10.1146/.annurev.nutr.27.061406.093738
CrossRef
Bjog-An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Weight gain restriction for obese pregnant women: a case-control intervention study
Claesson, IM; Sydsjo, G; Brynhildsen, J; Cedergren, M; Jeppsson, A; Nystrom, F; Sydsjo, A; Josefsson, A
Bjog-An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 115(1): 44-50.
10.1111/j.1471-0528.2007.01531.x
CrossRef
Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Dietary and lifestyle interventions to limit weight gain during pregnancy for obese or overweight women: A systematic review
Dodd, JM; Crowther, CA; Robinson, JS
Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 87(7): 702-706.
10.1080/00016340802061111
CrossRef
American Journal of Epidemiology
Interactions between smoking and weight in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia and small-for-gestational-age birth
Ness, RB; Zhang, J; Bass, D; Klebanoff, MA
American Journal of Epidemiology, 168(4): 427-433.
10.1093/aje/kwn140
CrossRef
Obesity Reviews
The impact of maternal BMI status on pregnancy outcomes with immediate short-term obstetric resource implications: a meta-analysis
Heslehurst, N; Simpson, H; Ells, LJ; Rankin, J; Wilkinson, J; Lang, R; Brown, TJ; Summerbell, CD
Obesity Reviews, 9(6): 635-683.
10.1111/j.1467-789X.2008.00511.x
CrossRef
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
The effect of body mass index value during labor on pregnancy outcomes in Turkish population (obesity and pregnancy outcomes)
Aydin, C; Baloglu, A; Yavuzcan, A; Inci, A
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 281(1): 49-54.
10.1007/s00404-009-1060-x
CrossRef
Journal of the National Medical Association
The Superobese Mother and Ethnic Disparities in Preterm Birth
Salihu, HM; Luke, S; Alio, AP; Wathington, D; Mbah, AK; Marty, PJ; Whiteman, V
Journal of the National Medical Association, 101(): 1125-1131.

American Journal of Perinatology
The Association of Prepregnancy Body Mass Index with Pregnancy Outcomes in Triplet Gestations
Russell, Z; Salihu, HM; Lynch, O; Alio, AP; Belogolovkin, V
American Journal of Perinatology, 27(1): 41-46.
10.1055/s-0029-1239488
CrossRef
Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Obstetric management of obesity in pregnancy
Jarvie, E; Ramsay, JE
Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 15(2): 83-88.
10.1016/j.siny.2009.10.001
CrossRef
Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Setting maternity care standards for women with obesity in pregnancy
Fitzsimons, KJ; Modder, J
Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 15(2): 100-107.
10.1016/j.siny.2009.09.004
CrossRef
Womens Health Issues
PRECONCEPTION PREDICTORS OF WEIGHT GAIN DURING PREGNANCY Prospective Findings from the Central Pennsylvania Women's Health Study
Weisman, CS; Hillemeier, MM; Downs, DS; Chuang, CH; Dyer, AM
Womens Health Issues, 20(2): 126-132.
10.1016/j.whi.2009.12.002
CrossRef
Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Maternal nutrition and offspring's adulthood NCD's: a review
Pasternak, Y; Aviram, A; Poraz, I; Hod, M
Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 26(5): 439-444.
10.3109/14767058.2012.745505
CrossRef
Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Influencing factors for late-onset preeclampsia
Ornaghi, S; Tyurmorezova, A; Algeri, P; Giardini, V; Ceruti, P; Vertemati, E; Vergani, P
Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 26(): 1299-1302.
10.3109/14767058.2013.783807
CrossRef
Hormones and Behavior
Frank A. Beach Award: Programming of neuroendocrine function by early-life experience: A critical role for the immune system
Bilbo, SD
Hormones and Behavior, 63(5): 684-691.
10.1016/j.yhbeh.2013.02.017
CrossRef
Science Translational Medicine
Improved Rodent Maternal Metabolism But Reduced Intrauterine Growth After Vertical Sleeve Gastrectomy
Grayson, BE; Schneider, KM; Woods, SC; Seeley, RJ
Science Translational Medicine, 5(): -.

Reproductive Sciences
The Influence of Overweight and Obesity on Maternal Soluble fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 1 and Its Relationship With Leptin During Pregnancy
Straughen, JK; Misra, DP; Kumar, P; Misra, VK
Reproductive Sciences, 20(3): 269-275.
10.1177/1933719112452472
CrossRef
Diabetes Care
The Relative Contribution of Prepregnancy Overweight and Obesity, Gestational Weight Gain, and IADPSG-Defined Gestational Diabetes Mellitus to Fetal Overgrowth
Black, MH; Sacks, DA; Xiang, AH; Lawrence, JM
Diabetes Care, 36(1): 56-62.
10.2337/dc12-0741
CrossRef
Journal of Reproductive Medicine
Effect of Maternal Weight on Accuracy of Maternal and Physician Estimate of Fetal Weight
Nguyen, T; Hawkins, CJ; Amon, E; Gavard, J
Journal of Reproductive Medicine, 58(): 200-204.

Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
Maternal Obesity and Detection Rate of Fetal Structural Anomalies
Hildebrand, E; Gottvall, T; Blomberg, M
Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy, 33(4): 246-251.
10.1159/000343219
CrossRef
Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America
Optimizing Natural Fertility The Role of Lifestyle Modification
McLean, M; Wellons, MF
Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America, 39(4): 465-+.
10.1016/j.ogc.2012.09.004
CrossRef
Preventive Medicine
Is obesity still increasing among pregnant women? Prepregnancy obesity trends in 20 states, 2003-2009
Fisher, SC; Kim, SY; Sharma, AJ; Rochat, R; Morrow, B
Preventive Medicine, 56(6): 372-378.
10.1016/j.ypmed.2013.02.015
CrossRef
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
Physical Activity and Pregnancy: Past and Present Evidence and Future Recommendations
Downs, DS; Chasan-Taber, L; Evenson, KR; Leiferman, J; Yeo, S
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 83(4): 485-502.

Advances in Nutrition
Physical Activity and Dietary Behaviors Associated With Weight Gain and Impaired Glucose Tolerance Among Pregnant Latinas
Chasan-Taber, L
Advances in Nutrition, 3(1): 108-118.
10.3945/an.111.001214
CrossRef
Acta Paediatrica
Leptin and adiponectin in cord blood from children of normal weight, overweight and obese mothers
Brynhildsen, J; Sydsjo, G; Blomberg, M; Claesson, IM; Theodorsson, E; Nystrom, F; Sydsjo, A; Josefsson, A
Acta Paediatrica, 102(6): 620-624.
10.1111/apa.12202
CrossRef
Journal De Gynecologie Obstetrique Et Biologie De La Reproduction
Particular maternal or fetal clinical conditions influencing the choice of the mode of delivery in case of previous cesarean
Schmitz, T
Journal De Gynecologie Obstetrique Et Biologie De La Reproduction, 41(8): 772-781.
10.1016/j.jgyn.2012.09.029
CrossRef
Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Cesarean delivery in obese women: a comprehensive review
Wispelwey, BP; Sheiner, E
Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 26(6): 547-551.
10.3109/14767058.2012.745506
CrossRef
Sao Paulo Medical Journal
Prevalence of urinary incontinence and pelvic floor muscle dysfunction in primiparae two years after cesarean section: cross-sectional study
Barbosa, AMP; Marini, G; Piculo, F; Rudge, CVC; Calderon, IMP; Rudge, MVC
Sao Paulo Medical Journal, 131(2): 95-99.
10.1590/S1516-31802013000100019
CrossRef
Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
Disparities in Contraceptive Access and Provision
Casey, F; Gomez-Lobo, V
Seminars in Reproductive Medicine, 31(5): 347-359.
10.1055/s-0033-1348893
CrossRef
Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Weight gain regardless of pre-pregnancy BMI and influence of fetal gender in response to labor induction in postdate pregnancy
Torricelli, M; Voltolini, C; Conti, N; Bocchi, C; Severi, FM; Petraglia, F
Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 26(): 1016-1019.
10.3109/14767058.2013.766712
CrossRef
Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
Parity related changes in obesity and some antioxidant vitamins in non-pregnant women of South-Eastern Nigeria
Nwagha, UI; Iyare, EE; Ejezie, FE; Ogbodo, SO; Dim, CC; Anyaehie, BU
Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice, 15(4): 380-384.
10.4103/1119-3077.104506
CrossRef
African Health Sciences
Anaesthetic and Obstetric challenges of morbid obesity in caesarean deliveries-a study in South-eastern Nigeria
Okafor, UV; Efetie, ER; Nwoke, O; Okezie, O; Umeh, U
African Health Sciences, 12(1): 54-57.

Maternal and Child Health Journal
Class III Obesity and Unwanted Pregnancy Among Women with Live Births in New York City, 2004-2007
Garbers, S; Chiasson, MA
Maternal and Child Health Journal, 17(8): 1459-1467.
10.1007/s10995-012-1150-4
CrossRef
Bmc Pregnancy and Childbirth
Neonatal outcomes in obese mothers: a population-based analysis
Minsart, AF; Buekens, P; De Spiegelaere, M; Englert, Y
Bmc Pregnancy and Childbirth, 13(): -.
ARTN 36
CrossRef
Bjog-An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Risk of obstetric anal sphincter lacerations among obese women
Lindholm, ES; Altman, D
Bjog-An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 120(9): 1110-1115.
10.1111/1471-0528.12228
CrossRef
Placenta
Role of leptin in pregnancy: Consequences of maternal obesity
Tessier, DR; Ferraro, ZM; Gruslin, A
Placenta, 34(3): 205-211.
10.1016/j.placenta.2012.11.035
CrossRef
Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
The interconnections between maternal and newborn health - evidence and implications for policy
Lassi, ZS; Majeed, A; Rashid, S; Yakoob, MY; Bhutta, ZA
Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 26(): 3-53.
10.3109/14767058.2013.784737
CrossRef
Public Health Nutrition
Pre-pregnancy obesity and maternal nutritional biomarker status during pregnancy: a factor analysis
Tomedi, LE; Chang, CCH; Newby, PK; Evans, RW; Luther, JF; Wisner, KL; Bodnar, LM
Public Health Nutrition, 16(8): 1414-1418.
10.1017/S1368980013000736
CrossRef
Bjog-An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
The impact of body mass index on maternal and neonatal outcomes: a retrospective study in a UK obstetric population, 2004-2011
Scott-Pillai, R; Spence, D; Cardwell, CR; Hunter, A; Holmes, VA
Bjog-An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 120(8): 932-939.
10.1111/1471-0528.12193
CrossRef
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Ovulation induction in the management of anovulatory polycystic ovary syndrome
Balen, AH
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, 373(): 77-82.
10.1016/j.mce.2012.10.008
CrossRef
Plos One
Impact of Obesity on Pregnancy Outcome in Different Ethnic Groups: Calculating Population Attributable Fractions
Oteng-Ntim, E; Kopeika, J; Seed, P; Wandiembe, S; Doyle, P
Plos One, 8(1): -.
ARTN e53749
CrossRef
Obesity Reviews
Maternal adiposity as an independent risk factor for pre-eclampsia: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies
Wang, Z; Wang, P; Liu, H; He, X; Zhang, J; Yan, H; Xu, D; Wang, B
Obesity Reviews, 14(6): 508-521.
10.1111/obr.12025
CrossRef
Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Nutrition and Pregnancy
MEHTA, SH
Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, 51(2): 409-418.
10.1097/GRF.0b013e31816fda53
PDF (210) | CrossRef
Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Obesity and reproduction: impact and interventions
Nelson, SM; Fleming, R
Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 19(4): 384-389.
10.1097/GCO.0b013e32825e1d70
PDF (111) | CrossRef
Epidemiology
Maternal Obesity and the Risk of Infant Death in the United States
Chen, A; Feresu, SA; Fernandez, C; Rogan, WJ
Epidemiology, 20(1): 74-81.
10.1097/EDE.0b013e3181878645
PDF (383) | CrossRef
Epidemiology
Impact of Pregnancy-induced Hypertension on Stillbirth and Neonatal Mortality
Ananth, CV; Basso, O
Epidemiology, 21(1): 118-123.
10.1097/EDE.0b013e3181c297af
PDF (229) | CrossRef
Epidemiology
Prepregnancy Body Size, Gestational Weight Gain, and Risk of Preterm Birth in African-American Women
Wise, LA; Palmer, JR; Heffner, LJ; Rosenberg, L
Epidemiology, 21(2): 243-252.
10.1097/EDE.0b013e3181cb61a9
PDF (362) | CrossRef
Obstetrics & Gynecology
Obesity-Related Complications in Danish Single Cephalic Term Pregnancies
Rode, L; Nilas, L; Wøjdemann, K; Tabor, A
Obstetrics & Gynecology, 105(3): 537-542.
10.1097/01.AOG.0000152304.39492.1c
PDF (183) | CrossRef
Obstetrics & Gynecology
Influence of Maternal Body Mass Index on the Clinical Estimation of Fetal Weight in Term Pregnancies
Fox, NS; Bhavsar, V; Saltzman, DH; Rebarber, A; Chasen, ST
Obstetrics & Gynecology, 113(3): 641-645.
10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181998eef
PDF (164) | CrossRef
Obstetrics & Gynecology
Monitoring Contractions in Obese Parturients: Electrohysterography Compared With Traditional Monitoring
Euliano, TY; Nguyen, MT; Marossero, D; Edwards, RK
Obstetrics & Gynecology, 109(5): 1136-1140.
10.1097/01.AOG.0000258799.24496.93
PDF (166) | CrossRef
Obstetrics & Gynecology
Extreme Obesity in Pregnancy in the United Kingdom
Knight, M; Kurinczuk, J; Spark, P; Brocklehurst, P; on behalf of the UK Obstetric Surveillance System,
Obstetrics & Gynecology, 115(5): 989-997.
10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181da8f09
PDF (782) | CrossRef
Obstetrics & Gynecology
Obstetric Outcomes After In Vitro Fertilization in Obese and Morbidly Obese Women
Dokras, A; Baredziak, L; Blaine, J; Syrop, C; VanVoorhis, BJ; Sparks, A
Obstetrics & Gynecology, 108(1): 61-69.
10.1097/01.AOG.0000219768.08249.b6
PDF (283) | CrossRef
Obstetrics & Gynecology
Association of Obesity With Pulmonary and Nonpulmonary Complications of Pregnancy in Asthmatic Women
Hendler, I; Schatz, M; Momirova, V; Wise, R; Landon, M; Mabie, W; Newman, RB; Kiley, J; Hauth, JC; Moawad, A; Caritis, SN; Spong, CY; Leveno, KJ; Miodovnik, M; Meis, P; Wapner, RJ; Paul, RH; Varner, MW; O'Sullivan, MJ; Thurnau, GR; Conway, DL; for the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal–Fetal Medicine Units Network,
Obstetrics & Gynecology, 108(1): 77-82.
10.1097/01.AOG.0000223180.53113.0f
PDF (253) | CrossRef
Obstetrics & Gynecology
Extreme Obesity and Risk of Stillbirth Among Black and White Gravidas
Salihu, HM; Dunlop, A; Hedayatzadeh, M; Alio, AP; Kirby, RS; Alexander, GR
Obstetrics & Gynecology, 110(3): 552-557.
10.1097/01.AOG.0000270159.80607.10
PDF (439) | CrossRef
Obstetrics & Gynecology
Effect of Body Mass Index and Excessive Weight Gain on Success of Vaginal Birth After Cesarean Delivery
Juhasz, G; Gyamfi, C; Gyamfi, P; Tocce, K; Stone, JL
Obstetrics & Gynecology, 106(4): 741-746.
10.1097/01.AOG.0000177972.32941.65
PDF (210) | CrossRef
Obstetrics & Gynecology
Optimal Gestational Weight Gain for Body Mass Index Categories
Cedergren, MI
Obstetrics & Gynecology, 110(4): 759-764.
10.1097/01.AOG.0000279450.85198.b2
PDF (320) | CrossRef
Obstetrics & Gynecology
Maternal Obesity and Neonatal Mortality According to Subtypes of Preterm Birth
Nohr, EA; Vaeth, M; Bech, BH; Henriksen, TB; Cnattingius, S; Olsen, J
Obstetrics & Gynecology, 110(5): 1083-1090.
10.1097/01.AOG.0000286760.46679.f8
PDF (225) | CrossRef
Obstetrics & Gynecology
Maternal Outcomes in Pregnancies Complicated by Obesity
Robinson, HE; O’Connell, CM; Joseph, KS; McLeod, NL
Obstetrics & Gynecology, 106(6): 1357-1364.
10.1097/01.AOG.0000188387.88032.41
PDF (228) | CrossRef
The Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing
Obesity as a Complication of Pregnancy and Labor
Kriebs, JM
The Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing, 23(1): 15-22.
10.1097/JPN.0b013e318197bf1b
PDF (387) | CrossRef
The Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing
Best Practices in Perinatal Nursing: Improving Outcomes for Obese and Morbidly Obese Women During the Intrapartum and Postpartum Periods
Mahlmeister, LR
The Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing, 21(2): 86-88.
10.1097/01.JPN.0000270621.79831.02
PDF (77) | CrossRef
MCN: The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing
Caring for the Extremely Obese Woman During Pregnancy and Birth
James, DC; Maher, MA
MCN: The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing, 34(1): 24-30.
10.1097/01.NMC.0000343862.72237.62
PDF (710) | CrossRef
MCN: The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing
LATE Preterm Birth: A New Nursing Issue
Shaw, RR
MCN: The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing, 33(5): 287-293.
10.1097/01.NMC.0000334895.91720.5d
PDF (4538) | CrossRef
Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
Obesity and Pregnancy
Hall, LF; Neubert, AG
Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey, 60(4): 253-260.

PDF (287)
Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
Are All Brachial Plexus Injuries Caused by Shoulder Dystocia?
Doumouchtsis, SK; Arulkumaran, S
Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey, 64(9): 615-623.
10.1097/OGX.0b013e3181b27a3a
PDF (546) | CrossRef
The Endocrinologist
Case Report: Exenatide Use During Pregnancy
Williams, J; Pomeroy, NE; Pop-Busui, R; Lash, R; Douyon, L; Chames, M; Wyckoff, J
The Endocrinologist, 19(3): 119-121.
10.1097/TEN.0b013e3181a5875e
PDF (127) | CrossRef
Back to Top | Article Outline

© 2004 The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists

Login

Article Tools

Images

Share