OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of ovarian conservation at hysterectomy and to examine the association of ovarian conservation and survival of young women with early-stage cervical cancer.
METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program to identify hysterectomy-based surgically treated patients with stage I cervical cancer diagnosed between 1983 and 2012 (N=16,511). Multivariable models were used to identify independent factors associated with ovarian conservation. Among the subgroup of 9,419 women younger than 50 years of age with stage I disease, survival outcomes and causes of death were examined for 3,908 (41.5%) women who underwent ovarian conservation at hysterectomy without radiotherapy.
RESULTS: On multivariable analysis, age younger than 50 years, stage IA disease, and squamous histology were independent factors associated with ovarian conservation (all, P<.001). Among 5,526 women younger than 50 years of age with stage IA disease who underwent hysterectomy without radiotherapy, overall survival was significantly higher in patients undergoing ovarian conservation than in those undergoing oophorectomy (20-year rate, 93.5% compared with 86.8%, P<.001); cervical cancer–specific survival was similar between the patients who underwent ovarian conservation and those who underwent oophorectomy (98.8% compared with 97.8%, P=.12). On multivariable analysis, ovarian conservation remained an independent prognostic factor for improved overall survival (adjusted hazard ratio 0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.49–0.82, P=.001) and was independently associated with lower cumulative risks of death resulting from cardiovascular disease (20-year cumulative rate, 1.2% compared with 3.3%, adjusted hazard ratio 0.47, 95% CI 0.26–0.86, P=.014) and other chronic disease (0.5% compared with 1.4%, adjusted hazard ratio 0.24, 95% CI 0.09–0.65, P=.005) compared with oophorectomy. Both cervical cancer–specific survival (20-year rate, 93.1% compared with 92.0%, P=.37) and overall survival (86.7% compared with 84.6%, P=.12) were similar between ovarian conservation and oophorectomy among 3,893 women younger than 50 years of age with stage IB disease who underwent hysterectomy without radiotherapy.
CONCLUSION: Among young women with stage IA cervical cancer, ovarian conservation at hysterectomy is associated with decreased all-cause mortality including death resulting from cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases.
In women younger than 50 years of age with stage IA cervical cancer, ovarian conservation at hysterectomy is associated with decreased all-cause mortality, including death from cardiovascular and chronic diseases.
Divisions of Gynecologic Oncology and Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Los Angeles County Medical Center, and the Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California; and the Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, and Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York.
Corresponding author: Koji Matsuo, MD, PhD, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Southern California, 2020 Zonal Avenue, IRD520, Los Angeles, CA 90033; email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Supported by the Ensign Endowment for Gynecologic Cancer Research (K.M.).
Financial Disclosure The authors did not report any potential conflicts of interest.
Each author has indicated that he or she has met the journal's requirements for authorship.