OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between anal human papillomavirus (HPV) and dysplasia in women with HPV+-related cervical abnormalities.
METHODS: A prospective cohort study was performed on patients referred to the dysplasia clinic for atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance with HPV, atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. Exclusion criteria include age younger than 21 years, pregnancy, atypical glandular cells on cytology, or prior total hysterectomy. All patients underwent standard colposcopy with possible biopsy and cervical HPV testing as well as anal swab testing for anal HPV and anal cytology. Patients with abnormal anal cytology were referred to colorectal surgery. Histology was not validated in this study.
RESULTS: One hundred ninety-six patients were evaluable. The prevalence of anal HPV was 32.5%. The prevalence of abnormal anal cytology was 17.6%. Women with high-risk cervical HPV were more likely to have high-risk anal HPV (odds ratio [OR] 3.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19–10.77, P<.024). Women with high-risk anal HPV were more likely to have abnormal anal cytology (OR 6.5, 95% CI 2.74–15.6, P<.001).
CONCLUSION: High-risk cervical HPV is associated with high-risk anal HPV and abnormal anal cytology.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II