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Obstetrics & Gynecology:
doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000000173
Contents: Original Research

Frequency of and Factors Associated With Severe Maternal Morbidity

Grobman, William A. MD, MBA; Bailit, Jennifer L. MD, MPH; Rice, Madeline Murguia PhD; Wapner, Ronald J. MD; Reddy, Uma M. MD, MPH; Varner, Michael W. MD; Thorp, John M. Jr MD; Leveno, Kenneth J. MD; Caritis, Steve N. MD; Iams, Jay D. MD; Tita, Alan T. MD, PhD; Saade, George MD; Sorokin, Yoram MD; Rouse, Dwight J. MD; Blackwell, Sean C. MD; Tolosa, Jorge E. MD, MSCE; Van Dorsten, J. Peter MD; for the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units (MFMU) Network

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the frequency of severe maternal morbidity, assess its underlying etiologies, and develop a scoring system to predict its occurrence.

Supplemental Digital Content is Available in the Text.

METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of a Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network cohort of 115,502 women and their neonates born in 25 hospitals across the United States over a 3-year period. Women were classified as having severe maternal morbidity according to a scoring system that takes into account the occurrence of red blood cell transfusion (more than three units), intubation, unanticipated surgical intervention, organ failure, and intensive care unit admission. The frequency of severe maternal morbidity was calculated and the underlying etiologies determined. Multivariable analysis identified patient factors present on admission that were independently associated with severe maternal morbidity; these were used to develop a prediction model for severe maternal morbidity.

RESULTS: Among 115,502 women who delivered during the study period, 332 (2.9/1,000 births, 95% confidence interval 2.6–3.2) experienced severe maternal morbidity. Postpartum hemorrhage was responsible for approximately half of severe maternal morbidity. Multiple patient factors were found to be independently associated with severe maternal morbidity and were used to develop a predictive model with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.80.

CONCLUSION: Severe maternal morbidity occurs in approximately 2.9 per 1,000 births, is most commonly the result of postpartum hemorrhage, and occurs more commonly in association with several identifiable patient characteristics.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II

© 2014 by The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.

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