BACKGROUND: Idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia is an immunodeficiency disorder with low absolute CD4 T-lymphocyte count with no evidence of human immunodeficiency virus or other known cause.
CASE: A 22-year-old woman presented with a high-grade Pap test result. Work-up demonstrated cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia 3 with extensive condyloma. She presented 6 months after her initial treatment with recurrent disease and was referred to the immunology department, where she was found to have profound lymphopenia. After further evaluation, idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia was diagnosed.
CONCLUSION: Idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia is a rare acquired immunodeficiency. Although genital dysplasia is common in young women, this case demonstrates the importance of determining other etiologies of recurrent human papillomavirus infections and possible immunodeficiencies that may affect management and outcomes.