OBJECTIVE: To estimate the associations of change in immune response with preterm delivery, omega-3 supplementation, and fish diet.
METHODS: This was an ancillary study to a randomized trial of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation for the prevention of recurrent preterm birth. In vitro maternal peripheral blood mononuclear leukocyte production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-10, and the proinflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-α, in response to stimulation with lipopolysaccharide, was measured at 16–22 weeks of gestation (baseline) and again at 25–28 weeks of gestation (follow-up) among women with prior spontaneous preterm birth. Changes in concentrations from baseline to follow-up ([INCREMENT]) were compared separately among groups defined by gestational age category at delivery, fish diet history, and omega-3 compared with placebo treatment assignment with Kruskal-Wallis tests.
RESULTS: Interleukin-10 [INCREMENT] differed by gestational age category among 292 women with paired assays. Concentrations increased less in women delivering between 35 and 36 6/7 weeks of gestation (48.9 pg/mL) compared with women delivering at term (159.3 pg/mL) and decreased by 65.2 pg/mL in women delivering before 35 weeks of gestation (P=.01). Tumor necrosis factor-α Δ also differed by gestational age category among 319 women, but the pattern was inconsistent. Those delivering between 35 and 36 6/7 weeks of gestation exhibited decreased concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α at follow-up compared with baseline (−356.0 pg/mL); concentrations increased among women delivering before 35 weeks of gestation and those delivering at term, 132.1 and 86.9 pg/mL (P=.03). Interleukin-10 Δ and tumor necrosis factor-α Δ were unaffected by either omega-3 supplementation or fish diet.
CONCLUSION: Recurrent preterm birth was associated with decreased peripheral blood mononuclear leukocyte production of interleukin-10 in response to a stimulus during the second trimester.
CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00135902.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II