Endometriosis is a relatively common chronic gynecologic disorder that usually presents with chronic pelvic pain or infertility. The societal effect of this disorder is enormous both in monetary costs and in quality of life. The diagnosis of the disease can only be definitively made with surgical intervention. Fertility may be enhanced with surgical intervention, but medical suppressive therapy has no role apart from in vitro fertilization. Assisted reproductive technology is associated with excellent outcomes. Management of endometriomas is particularly complex because surgical intervention may reduce ovarian reserve. Both medical and surgical treatment of endometriosis-associated chronic pelvic pain are effective in the short-term. Recurrence is common with both modalities. Recurrence after surgical intervention can be decreased with the use of postoperative suppressive medical therapy such as hormonal contraceptives. This article presents the different types of peritoneal disease found in endometriosis patients. The technique used to safely and completely remove the disease is discussed. The specific areas of involvement include the pelvic side wall, the cul-de-sac, and bladder peritoneum.