OBJECTIVE: To assess the associations among maternal obesity, uterine contraction frequency, and spontaneous preterm birth in women at risk for spontaneous preterm birth.
METHODS: In a secondary analysis, we analyzed data from 253 women at risk for spontaneous preterm birth (prior spontaneous preterm birth, vaginal bleeding) enrolled in a multicenter observational study of home uterine activity monitoring at 11 centers. All women wore a uterine activity monitor twice daily from 22 weeks through 34 weeks of gestation. Mean and maximal contractions/hour at 22–24, 25–26, 27–28, 29–30, 31–32 weeks, and at or after 33 weeks of gestation were compared between overweight/obese women (a body mass index [BMI] at 22–24 weeks greater than 25 kg/m2) and normal/underweight women (a BMI of 25 kg/m2 or less) at each gestational age interval. Multivariable analysis evaluated the influences of BMI, contractions, fetal fibronectin, and transvaginal cervical length on spontaneous preterm birth before 35 weeks.
RESULTS: Obese/overweight women (n=156) were significantly less likely to experience spontaneous preterm birth before 35 weeks (8.3% compared with 21.7%, P<.01). For each gestational age interval before 32 weeks, obese/overweight women had fewer mean contractions/hour (P<.01 for each) and maximal contractions/hour (P<.01 for each) than normal/underweight women, although their mean cervical lengths (34.3 mm compared with 33.1 mm, P=.25), and fetal fibronectin levels (7.1% compared with 7.2% 50 ng/mL or more, P=.97) were similar at study enrollment. Obese/overweight status was associated with a lower risk of spontaneous preterm birth before 35 weeks after controlling for contraction frequency and other factors evaluated at 22–24 weeks, but not at later periods.
CONCLUSION: Obese/overweight women at risk for spontaneous preterm birth exhibit less uterine activity and less frequent spontaneous preterm birth before 35 weeks of gestation than normal/underweight women.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II