This review summarizes the primary management of molar pregnancies, surveillance after evacuation, and the evaluation and management of malignant gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). Most women with gestational trophoblastic disease can be successfully managed with preservation of their normal reproductive function. It is important to manage molar pregnancies properly to minimize acute complications and identify malignant sequelae promptly. Current International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) guidelines for making the diagnosis and staging of GTN allow uniformity for reporting results of treatment. It is important to individualize treatment for women with malignant GTN based upon risk factors, using less toxic therapy for patients with low-risk disease and aggressive multiagent therapy for those with high-risk disease. Patients with malignant GTN should be managed in consultation with an individual experienced in the complex, multimodality treatment of these patients.