Obstetrics & Gynecology

Skip Navigation LinksHome > April 2003 - Volume 101 - Issue 4 > Effect of Genital Prolapse on Assessment of Bladder Neck Mob...
Obstetrics & Gynecology:
Original Research

Effect of Genital Prolapse on Assessment of Bladder Neck Mobility by the Q‐tip Test

Pollak, Jennifer T. MD; Jenkins, Penny ARNP; Kopka, Stacy L. MS; Davila, G. Willy MD

Collapse Box


OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of vaginal prolapse and bladder fullness on Q-tip test assessment of urethral mobility.

METHODS: Twenty-six women with genital prolapse to or beyond the hymen and undergoing urodynamics for urogynecologic dysfunction were assessed by the Q-tip test. Measurements were obtained with the bladder empty, with and without the prolapse reduced by the posterior blade of a Graves speculum. Angles were repeated at bladder capacity. Measured Q-tip angles were compared using the Wilcoxon signed rank test.

RESULTS: Q-tip angles were significantly altered by vaginal prolapse and bladder fullness. With an empty bladder, the median Q-tip angle measured with the prolapse reduced was significantly less than that measured without reduction (53°, interquartile range 25–65, versus 68°, interquartile range 45–75; P < .001). With a full bladder, similar but lesser results were obtained (33°, interquartile range 15–55 [reduced] versus 48°, interquartile range 31–60 [unreduced]; P < .001). The median Q-tip angle with an empty bladder was greater than that with a full bladder. With the prolapse reduced, the Q-tip angle was 53° (interquartile range 25–65) with an empty bladder versus 33° (interquartile range 15–55) with a full bladder (P < 001). Without the prolapse reduced, the median Q-tip angle was 68° (interquartile range 45–75) with an empty bladder and 48° (interquartile range 31–60) with a full bladder (P < .001).

CONCLUSION: Measurement of urethral mobility by the Q-tip test is significantly affected by genital prolapse. Q-tip angles are less with the reduction of vaginal prolapse and with the bladder full. Standardization of measurement technique is necessary for the development of clinical management recommendations.

© 2003 The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists



Looking for ABOG articles? Visit our ABOG MOC II collection. The selected Green Journal articles are free through the end of the calendar year.


If you are an ACOG Fellow and have not logged in or registered to Obstetrics & Gynecology, please follow these step-by-step instructions to access journal content with your member subscription.

Article Tools


Article Level Metrics