A case-control study was performed to study risk factors for hemorrhage in cesarean deliveries. Hemorrhage was defined by a pre- to post-delivery hematocrit decrease of 10 points or more or by the need for red-cell transfusion. Patients with antenatal bleeding were excluded. Among 3052 cesarean deliveries, hemorrhage occurred in 196 cases (6.4%). Three controls were matched to each case and multiple logistic regression was used to control for covariance among predictor variables. Factors having a significant association with hemorrhage were: general anesthesia (adjusted odds ratio 2.94), amnionitis (odds ratio 2.69), preeclampsia (2.18), protracted active phase of labor (2.40), second-stage arrest (1.90), and Hispanic ethnicity (1.82). After adjustment for these variables, a classic uterine incision had a small but significant association (odds ratio 1.06) with hemorrhage. Previous cesarean, parity, gestational age, and several other factors had no association with hemorrhage. These data allow one to anticipate hemorrhage in patients at risk and may be useful in planning appropriate use of blood bank resources, including antepartum autologous blood donation.
(C) 1991 The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists