Well-differentiated adenocarcinoma of the endometrium was diagnosed by cytologic examination of peritoneal dialysate during continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in a 70-year-old woman. The patient had undergone estrogen therapy for 16 years. The carcinoma was localized, noninvasive, and apparently at an early stage of development. Surgical removal was followed by megestrol acetate chemotherapy and the patient currently remains on peritoneal dialysis, free of recurrence, at 14 months. This case suggests that cellular material from the endometrium can be retrieved from intraperitoneal dialysate in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. Therefore, cytologic examination should be performed on peritoneal fluid with elevated counts associated with sterile cultures or atypical features.
© 1983 The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists