Changing the Health Care Response to Battered Women: A Health Education Approach.Smith, Paige Hall PhD, MSPH; Danis, Marion; Helmick, LauraFamily & Community Health: January 1998 Original Article: PDF Only Abstract Numerous factors are thought to prevent the successful implementation of domestic violence intervention protocols and programs that are designed to encourage physicians and nurses to identify and appropriately treat battered women. Using the PRECEDE-PROCEED model of behavior change as a guide, this study investigated baseline factors associated with clinician screening behaviors prior to its implementation. Perceived competence, a composite measure of self-efficacy around specific clinically relevant behaviors, emerged as the primary predictor of all behaviors. In addition, belief that clinicians should screen all women as part of a routine history or physical examination emerged as a predictor for routine screening. (C) Williams & Wilkins 1998. All Rights Reserved.