Background: Estrogen receptor β (ERβ) is a potential tumor-suppressor gene in colorectal cancer (CRC). This hypothesis is supported by clinical and laboratory observations.
Aim: In this meta-analysis, we looked at studies that investigated the relationship between ERβ protein expression and CRC, comparing the lesion with normal adjacent mucosa.
Methods: English medical literature searches were performed for ERβ expression in patients with CRC, tumor tissue versus normal mucosa. Searches were performed up to 31 May 2015, using MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, and CENTRAL. Meta-analysis was carried out using Comprehensive Meta-analysis Software. Pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated and ERβ expression was compared in individual studies using the fixed-effects model.
Results: The odds ratio of ERβ expression was 0.216 (95% confidence interval 0.152–0.307, P<0.0001), lower in cancer tissue than normal mucosa. Funnel plot did not indicate a significant publication bias. There was no significant heterogeneity in the studies included: Q=5.897, d.f.(Q)=9, I2=0.000, P=0.750.
Conclusion: In this meta-analysis, we confirm the observation of decreased ERβ expression in CRC. Our results support the hypothesis of ERβ being a tumor-suppressor gene in the large bowel, and the ERβ protein protects against carcinogenesis and development of CRC when activated by estrogen. Further studies are needed to examine the potential of selective/specific ligands to activate ERβ without the side effects found with estrogen and without activating ERα.
Summary: In this meta-analysis, we looked at studies that investigated the relationship between CRC and ERβ expression in the tumor and normal mucosa of CRC patients. English medical literature searches were performed for studies comparing ERβ expression in the cancer and normal colonic mucosa in patients with CRC. Meta-analysis was carried out, pooled odds ratios were calculated, and ERβ expression was compared in individual studies.
Department of Gastroenterology, Rabin Medical Center, Tel Aviv University, Petach Tikva, Israel
Correspondence to Yaron Niv, MD, AGAF, FACG, Department of Gastroenterology, Rabin Medical Center, Tel Aviv University, 39 Jabotinski Street, Petach Tikva 49100, Israel Tel: +972 3937 7237; fax: +972 3921 0313; e-mail: email@example.com
Received July 4, 2015
Accepted August 5, 2015