Home Current Issue Previous Issues Published Ahead-of-Print Collections For Authors Journal Info
Skip Navigation LinksHome > March 2013 - Volume 25 - Issue 3 > The effect of smoking on the risk of gallbladder cancer: a...
European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology:
doi: 10.1097/MEG.0b013e32835a870b
Original Articles: Biliary Disorders

The effect of smoking on the risk of gallbladder cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies

Wenbin, Dinga; Zhuo, Chena; Zhibing, Minga; Chen, Zhoua; Ruifan, Yuana; Jie, Jina; Cheng, Qiana; Zhenming, Geb

Collapse Box

Abstract

Background: Cigarette smoking has been shown to cause many nonpulmonary cancers, including those of liver, pancreas and bladder. However, results of epidemiologic studies examining the association between smoking and gallbladder cancer (GBC) have been mixed. To clarify the association of cigarette smoking and GBC, we performed a meta-analysis of observational studies.

Methods: A literature search was performed using Medline (from 1 January 1966) and Embase (from 1 January 1974), through 31 January 2012, and by manually searching the reference lists of pertinent articles. Summary relative risks (SRRs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with a random-effects model.

Results: A total of 11 articles (10 case–control and one prospective cohort studies) were used in this meta-analysis, which is based on a total of 1178 GBC cases. Analysis of 11 studies found that smokers had an increased risk of GBC development, compared with nonsmokers (SRRs 1.45, 95% CIs, 1.11–1.89). There was moderate heterogeneity among studies (Q=18.15, P=0.052, I 2=44.9%). These increased risks were independent of alcohol use and a history of gallstones. No significant publication bias was found.

Conclusion: Although the current evidence supports a positive link between cigarette smoking and risk of gallbladder cancer, additional population-based studies, particularly cohort studies, are needed before definitive conclusions can be drawn.

© 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

Login

Search for Similar Articles
You may search for similar articles that contain these same keywords or you may modify the keyword list to augment your search.