Prevention of ER-negative breast cancer: where do we stand?Cazzaniga, Massimiliano; Bonanni, BernardoEuropean Journal of Cancer Prevention: March 2012 - Volume 21 - Issue 2 - p 171–181 doi: 10.1097/CEJ.0b013e32834c9c26 Review Article: Breast cancer Abstract Author Information Oestrogen receptor-negative and triple-negative breast cancers are types of aggressive tumours that account for approximately 30 and 15% of total breast cancers, respectively. Selective oestrogen receptor modulators and aromatase inhibitors are unable to treat and prevent these subtypes of mammary tumours. Thus, it is worth identifying new pathways, biomarkers, and agents that are effective in the treatment and prevention of these subtypes. Several classes of drugs have been studied, and many are still currently under investigation. We have attempted to conduct a state-of-the-art study on this important issue. Division of Cancer Prevention and Genetics, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy Correspondence to Massimiliano Cazzaniga, MD, Division of Cancer Prevention and Genetics, European Institute of Oncology, via Ripamonti 435, 20141, Milan, Italy Tel: +39 2 57489892; fax: +39 2 57489809; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Received May 17, 2011 Accepted July 16, 2011 © 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.