Background: Carbonated beverage consumption has been linked with diabetes, hypertension, and kidney stones, all risk factors for chronic kidney disease. Cola beverages, in particular, contain phosphoric acid and have been associated with urinary changes that promote kidney stones.
Methods: We examined the relationship between carbonated beverages (including cola) and chronic kidney disease, using data from 465 patients with newly diagnosed chronic kidney disease and 467 community controls recruited in North Carolina between 1980 and 1982.
Results: Drinking 2 or more colas per day was associated with increased risk of chronic kidney disease (adjusted odds ratio = 2.3; 95% confidence interval = 1.4–3.7). Results were the same for regular colas (2.1; 1.3–3.4) and artificially sweetened colas (2.1; 0.7–2.5). Noncola carbonated beverages were not associated with chronic kidney disease (0.94; 0.4–2.2).
Conclusions: These preliminary results suggest that cola consumption may increase the risk of chronic kidney disease.
From the *Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), NIH, DHHS, Research Triangle Park; and †WESTAT, Inc., Durham, North Carolina.
Submitted 24 October 2006; accepted 17 February 2007; posted 22 May 2007.
Supported by the Intramural Research Program of the NIH, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.
Correspondence: Dale P. Sandler, Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), NIH, DHHS, P.O. Box 12233, MD A3-05, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. E-mail: email@example.com.