This Ontario province-wide cohort study was conducted to compare the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in female childhood cancer survivors who received abdominal-pelvic radiation and/or chemotherapy with alkylating agents with the risk among those who were treated by non-sterilizing alkylating agents with the risk among those who were treated by non-sterilizing surgery only. Females in Ontario, Canada, diagnosed in 1964–1988 before age 20 with a histologically confirmed malignancy and who had survived for at least 5 years, attained age 18, and were alive at the time of study, were identified through the Ontario Cancer Registry. We ascertained pregnancy outcomes by a telephone-administered questionnaire. Treatment data were abstracted from medical records for 830 subjects 18–49 years of age, the analysis comprised 340 survivors who had one or more pregnancies after treatment. There was no evidence of an increased risk of having a spontaneous abortion or an infant with a birth defect. Survivors receiving abdominal-pelvic radiation were more likely to have a low birth weight infant (odds ratio estimate [OR] = 3.64; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.33–9.96), a premature low birth weight infant (OR = 3.29; 95% CI = 0.97–11.1), or an infant who died in the perinatal period (OR = 2.41; 95% CI = 0.50–11.5), compared with those receiving surgery. Risks of perinatal death and having a low birth weight infant increased with dose of radiotherapy directed to the abdomen.