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Wilhelm, M; Ritz, B
Department of Epidemiology, University of California, Los Angeles.
Data concerning the impact of pre- and postnatal air pollution exposures on development of reactive airway disease are sparse, although the first 6 years of life comprise a period of high susceptibility due to the immaturity of the human lung. We are currently planning to conduct 2 prospective birth cohort studies to examine the influence of perinatal air pollution exposures on subsequent development of asthma and other adverse health outcomes in Los Angeles, California, one of the smoggiest cities in the United States. In a nested case–control survey of approximately 2500 women who delivered infants in 2003, we obtained detailed information on residential mobility, exposure to indoor air pollution sources, time-activity patterns, and risk behaviors during pregnancy and collected home dust wipe samples. We are planning to recontact participants when the children are 3 and 6 years of age to assess the incidence and prevalence of respiratory and allergic symptoms and to perform lung function testing using portable spirometers and skin-prick testing in a nested subgroup of children (at age 6). We will derive prenatal and childhood air pollution exposures using data from ambient air monitors, traffic density metrics, and pollution surfaces estimated through land use regression (LUR) and geostatistical modeling. In a second prospective birth cohort study of 600 to 1000 Los Angeles families enrolled at delivery and followed for 5 years to include second pregnancies, we plan to create a biologic sample repository by collecting maternal blood and urine and cord blood at delivery and during pregnancy. We will examine the impact of prenatal exposures to ubiquitous environmental toxins on child health. We will administer a questionnaire at birth of the first pregnancy designed to assess prenatal traffic-related and consumer product exposures and will also create pollution exposure measures using existing data sources. Based on these preliminary measures, we will select a subsample of approximately 60 women for extensive personal air sampling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), ultrafine particles, organic and elemental carbon, and hopanes approximately 6 months postdelivery and analysis of blood and urine for the PAH biomarkers1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) and PAH DNA-adducts. Future work includes similar monitoring once during each trimester of the second pregnancy. Infants enrolled in these unique cohorts comprise, especially vulnerable populations, because by design, many of them will be low birth weight or preterm and live in disadvantaged neighborhoods in LA County.
© 2006 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
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