ISEE/ISEA 2006 Conference Abstracts Supplement: Symposium Abstracts: Abstracts
Symposium Title: Biomarkers in Human Studies and Relevance to Disease Outcomes
Symposium Organizers: Radim Sram,* R.J. Albertini,† and Irva Hertz-Picciotto‡ *Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR and Health Institute of Central Bohemia, Prague, Czech Republic; †University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, and ‡Department of Public Health Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA.
The molecular epidemiology methods were used to analyze the impact of air pollution in pregnancy outcome studies in the Czech Republic.
PM10, PM2.5, and carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (c-PAHs) were daily determined using stationary monitoring. The placental bulky DNA adducts were determined by 32P-postlabeling assay. The genetic polymorphisms of metabolic genotypes (GSTM1, GSTP1, GSTT1, CYP1A1*2A, CYP1A1*2C, EPHX1, NAT2) were determined by PCR. Cotinine and vitamins A, C, and E were analyzed in plasma. Data on pregnancies were extracted from medical records and questionnaires.
Organic compounds adsorbed to air particles (PM10) induced DNA adducts and embryotoxicity in vitro studies. C-PAHs were mostly responsible for the genotoxic activity, contributing to 45% to 50% of all DNA adducts induced by these complex mixtures. DNA adducts in placentas were affected by air pollution, smoking, genotypes, and vitamin C levels. Higher DNA adducts were observed in nonsmoking mothers delivering children with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). In the Pregnancy Outcome Project, an increased risk of IUGR was established for mothers who were exposed to c-PAHs >15 ng/m3 during the first month of gestation. Birth weight was significantly decreased by smoking, ETS, and genetic polymorphisms of CYP1A1*2A, CYP1A1*2C, GSTM1, and EPHX1.
Discussion and Conclusions:
c-PAHs seem to be an important source of genotoxic and embryotoxic activities of organic mixtures associated with urban air particles. These are new results indicating the significant impact of c-PAHs to the early stages of fetus development.
Supported by the Czech Ministry of Environment VaV/740/5/03 and by the EC QLK4-CT-2002-02198.