Skip Navigation LinksHome > January 2006 - Volume 17 - Issue 1 > Night Work and Risk of Breast Cancer
doi: 10.1097/01.ede.0000190539.03500.c1
Brief Report

Night Work and Risk of Breast Cancer

Schernhammer, Eva S.*†; Kroenke, Candyce H.*; Laden, Francine*‡§; Hankinson, Susan E.*‡

Free Access
Article Outline
Collapse Box

Author Information

From the *Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; †Ludwig Boltzmann-Institute for Applied Cancer Research, KFJ-Spital, and Applied Cancer Research–Institute for Translational Research Vienna (LBI-ACR VIEnna & ACR-ITR VIEnna), Austria; and the Departments of ‡Epidemiology and §Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.

Submitted 4 March 2005; accepted 10 August 2005.

Correspondence: Eva S. Schernhammer, Channing Laboratory, 181 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115. E-mail: eva.schernhammer@channing.harvard.edu.

Collapse Box


Background: Melatonin shows potential oncostatic activity and is acutely suppressed by light exposure. Some evidence suggests an association between night work and breast cancer risk, possibly through the melatonin pathway.

Methods: In a cohort of premenopausal nurses, we prospectively studied the relation between rotating night shift work and breast cancer risk. Total number of months during which the nurses worked rotating night shifts was first assessed at baseline in 1989 and periodically updated thereafter. We used Cox proportional hazards models to calculate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Results: Among 115,022 women without cancer at baseline, 1,352 developed invasive breast cancer during 12 years of follow up. Women who reported more than 20 years of rotating night shift work experienced an elevated relative risk of breast cancer compared with women who did not report any rotating night shift work (multivariate RR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.06–3.01). There was no increase in risk associated with fewer years of rotating night work.

Conclusion: Our results suggest a modestly elevated risk of breast cancer after longer periods of rotating night work. Additional studies are warranted to rule out small sample size or uncontrolled sources for confounding as alternative explanations.

Environmental lighting powerfully influences the circadian system in humans.1 In particular, light exposure may have an adverse effect on breast cancer risk through suppression of melatonin, a hormone that is intimately linked to the circadian system and demonstrates cancer-protective capability in experimental models.2 Observational studies have consistently associated night work with an increase in breast cancer risk,3 but these studies were mostly retrospective in design. The only prospective study4 on the possible link between night shift work and breast cancer was the original Nurses’ Health Study, which comprised primarily postmenopausal women.

Back to Top | Article Outline


The Nurses’ Health Study II is a prospective cohort study that began in 1989, when 116,671 registered female U.S. nurses of ages 25 to 42 years were enrolled. Since 1989, they have completed biennial mailed questionnaires that include items about their health status and known or suspected risk factors for cancer.5 Response rates to questionnaires are at 90%. Further details of the Nurses’ Health Study II are described elsewhere.6

Back to Top | Article Outline
Assessment of Night Shift Working Status

The 1989 questionnaire included detailed questions on total months during which study participants had worked on rotating night shifts for at least 3 nights per month in addition to having worked days or evenings in that month. This information was updated in 1991, 1993, and 1997. The prespecified categories for total numbers of months working on rotating night shifts were none, 1–4, 5–9, 10–14, 15–19, and 20 or more. Because the 1995 and 1999 questionnaires did not assess night work information, women were queried retrospectively in 2001 for the time periods 1993–1995 and 1997–1999. Questions were asked regarding both rotating night shifts, as previously described, and permanent night shifts for 6 or more months.

Back to Top | Article Outline
Documentation of Breast Cancer and Deaths

We identified breast cancer cases as cases occurring between 1 June 1989 and 1 June 2001. Nurses who reported breast cancer were asked for permission to review their medical records, and breast cancer was confirmed through review of these records. In addition, approximately two thirds of the deaths among cohort members were reported to us by next of kin or the postal system in response to follow-up questionnaires. We also searched the National Death Index to identify deaths among the nonrespondents to each 2-year questionnaire.7 A total of 1,352 cases of breast cancer were reported in the base population during 12 years of follow up, and pathology records were obtained for 98%. We based our analyses on the total, because the accuracy of the self-reporting was extremely high in this cohort (>99%).

Back to Top | Article Outline
Study Population

The population for this study consisted of 116,087 women who returned the 1989 questionnaire and answered the question on night work (99.5% of the total). Women with a history of cancer (except nonmelanoma skin cancer) at baseline were excluded. A total of 115,022 women remained to form the baseline population for this analysis, and 1,313,203 person years of follow-up were accrued from 1989 to 2001.

Back to Top | Article Outline
Statistical Analysis

We computed person-years of follow up to the date of diagnosis of breast cancer, death from any cause, or the end of the study period (1 June 2001), whichever came first. Information on lifetime history of rotating night shift work obtained from the 1989 questionnaire was updated according to the biennial follow-up questionnaires. Gaps in the prospectively collected information for 1993–1995 and 1997–1999 were filled with retrospectively assessed information on months of rotating night work during these 2-year periods, as ascertained on the 2001 questionnaire. To evaluate the validity of this approach, we conducted sensitivity analyses either carrying forward night work information from the previous cycle or setting number of months worked on rotating night shifts to zero for these 2 time periods.

Women were categorized according to the total number of years they worked rotating night shifts at least 3 nights per month in addition to days or evenings in that month (“never,” “1–9 years,” “10–19 years,” or “≥20 years”). Information about breast cancer and established risk factors for breast cancer was updated biennially. We calculated Mantel-Haenszel summary relative risks (RRs) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusting for age in 5-year categories.8 Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate RRs and 95% CIs with adjustment for age (in years) and a number of known breast cancer risk factors.

Back to Top | Article Outline


At baseline, in 1989, women who had never worked on rotating night shifts accounted for 38% of the person-years of follow up among all women. Women who worked rotating shifts were similar in their characteristics to those who had never done such work (Table 1). However, night shift workers were older and tended to smoke more than those who had never worked on rotating nightshifts.

Table 1
Table 1
Image Tools

Table 2 shows the relationship between total number of years on rotating night shifts and breast cancer. Higher duration of shift work was associated with an increased breast cancer risk; women who had worked for 20 or more years on rotating night shifts had a 79% greater risk of breast cancer compared with women who had never worked this schedule (multivariate-adjusted RR =1.79; 95% CI = 1.06–3.01; P for trend = 0.65). Moreover, results were similar when the same analysis was limited to rotating night shifts at baseline (2.79; 1.38–5.66). However, this analysis was based on only 8 cases exposed at baseline who reported 20 or more years of night work in 1989.

Table 2
Table 2
Image Tools

In our main analyses, we used retrospective information from 2001 to create a composite night work variable. We also conducted 2 types of sensitivity analyses. In the first, rather than using the 2001 data retrospectively, we conservatively assumed that nurses had not worked a single month on rotating night shifts during the time periods in question, which produced essentially no change in the results (2.01; 1.17–3.44). Second, we carried forward the last reported value (ie, from the previous questionnaire cycle), an approach commonly applied for missing information in updated analyses. In this analysis, we saw a slightly weaker association (1.56; 0.91–2.66) when compared with our main approach.

In stratified analyses, although limited by small case numbers, we observed no effect modification by body mass index or smoking history. The exclusion of current smokers did strengthen our estimates but only modestly (1.92; 1.10–3.35).

It is possible that women stopped working night shifts due to early symptoms associated with breast cancer. If true, such a “healthy worker effect” would have biased our results toward the null. To address this hypothesis, we repeated our analyses excluding the first 4 years of follow up after the baseline report on night work (1989–1993). We analyzed the relation between number of nights worked as assessed in 1989 and the risk of breast cancer from 1993 through 2001. This 4-year latency period was associated with an increase in breast cancer risk (1.79; 0.88–3.63), similar to the risk we observed in our main analyses.

Back to Top | Article Outline


In this large prospective cohort study with detailed and updated information on night shift work, the risk of breast cancer was found to be modestly elevated in women who worked for 20 or more years on rotating night shifts compared with those who never worked rotating night shifts. Our finding, which is consistent with previous studies suggesting a link between night work and breast cancer risk, is the first prospective report on this association in premenopausal women.

Several retrospective studies9–15 and one prospective study4 of night workers have found an elevated breast cancer risk associated with occupational exposure to light at night. The only prospective cohort study to date used data from the original Nurses’ Health Study.4 In that study, the RR associated with extended periods (30 or more years) of rotating night work was 1.36 (95% CI = 1.04–1.78) after controlling for known breast cancer risk factors. This risk increased with numbers of years of shift work (P for trend = 0.02). Studies of flight attendants also consistently find that female cabin crew members are at increased risk for breast cancer,14 although the incomplete assessment of possible confounding factors remains an important limitation of these retrospective studies.

Although we did not validate self-reported duration of rotating night shifts, it is likely that our results are accurate, because other self-reports have been highly accurate in a similar cohort,16 and previous validations of similar questions (eg, electric blanket use)17 have shown reasonable reproducibility. Moreover, the prospective design of our study eliminates recall bias. We may have missed women who were on permanent nightshifts and thus perhaps did not classify themselves as working on rotating shifts; assuming that the average serum melatonin levels would likely be higher than those of rotating shift workers (because of better entrainment of their circadian rhythm), we anticipate that such misclassification would bias our results toward the null. In secondary analyses, we excluded women who had worked 6 or more months of permanent night work, with similar findings, thus providing support for our theory.

A potential limitation in our study is that women who work most frequently on night shifts may differ from women with no night shift experience in ways that influence risk of breast cancer and in ways we were not able to control. For example, there was a marked difference in smoking history among women who never had worked night shift and those with 20 or more years of night work; moreover, smoking duration rather than current smoking status was most strongly related to breast cancer risk in this cohort.18 However, neither the additional adjustment for pack-years smoked nor the exclusion of smokers from our analyses altered our results. Nonetheless, although we controlled for known potential confounding factors, uncontrolled confounding may stem from differences in socioeconomic status or other differences in lifestyle that we were not able to consider.

Another limitation of our study is that few women had worked rotating night shifts for 20 or more years, leading to small case numbers in the longest exposure categories. Thus, although we have seen similarly increased risks of breast cancer with 30 or more years of night work based on much larger case numbers in our previous study4 of older women (Nurses’ Health Study), larger studies of premenopausal women are still needed to confirm our findings. In addition, we had no information on the actual number of nights worked per month. It is conceivable that women with the longest duration of night work are also those who work the highest number of night shifts per month. Thus, frequency of night shifts, as well as number of years of such work, should be considered in future studies.

In conclusion, working on rotating night shifts was associated with a modestly increased breast cancer risk among the female nurses in our cohort. The findings from our study, in combination with the results of earlier work, reduce the likelihood that this association is due solely to chance. Because breast cancer constitutes an enormous disease burden in the United States, and because a significant portion of workers engage in shift work, further studies examining the relationship between light exposure at night and cancer risk through the melatonin pathway are warranted.

Back to Top | Article Outline


We are indebted to the participants of the Nurses’ Health Study II for their continuing outstanding dedication to the study. We would also like to express our deep gratitude to Richard Stevens for providing stimulus to assess night work in the Nurses' Health Study II.

Back to Top | Article Outline


1. Czeisler CA, Dijk DJ. Human circadian physiology and sleep-wake regulation. In: Takahashi JS, Turek FW, Moore RY, eds. Handbook of Behavioral Neurobiology: Circadian Clocks. New York: Plenum Publishing Co; 2001:531–569.

2. Vijayalaxmi Thomas CRJ, Reiter RJ, et al. Melatonin: from basic research to cancer treatment clinics. J Clin Oncol. 2002;20:2575–2601.

3. Schernhammer ES, Hankinson SE. Light at night: a novel risk factor for cancer in shift workers? Clin Occup Environ Med. 2003;3:263–278.

4. Schernhammer ES, Laden F, Speizer FE, et al. Rotating night shifts and risk of breast cancer in women participating in the Nurses’ Health Study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2001;93:1563–1568.

5. Colditz GA, Manson JE, Hankinson SE. The Nurses’ Health Study: 20-year contribution to the understanding of health among women. J Womens Health. 1997;6:49–62.

6. Rockhill B, Willett WC, Hunter DJ, et al. Physical activity and breast cancer risk in a cohort of young women. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1998;90:1155–1160.

7. Rich-Edwards JW, Corsano KA, Stampfer MJ. Test of the National Death Index and equifax nationwide death search. Am J Epidemiol. 1994;140:1016–1019.

8. Rothman KJ, Boice JD. Epidemiologic Analysis With a Programmable Calculator. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office; 1979. NIH publication no. (PHS) 79–1649.

9. Pukkala E, Auvinen A, Wahlberg G. Incidence of cancer among Finnish airline cabin attendants. BMJ. 1995;311:649–652.

10. Tynes T, Hannevik M, Andersen A, et al. Incidence of breast cancer in Norwegian female radio and telegraph operators. Cancer Causes Control. 1996;7:197–204.

11. Rafnsson V, Tulinius H, Jonasson JG, et al. Risk of breast cancer in female flight attendants: a population-based study (Iceland). Cancer Causes Control. 2001;12:95–101.

12. Hansen J. Increased breast cancer risk among women who work predominantly at night. Epidemiology. 2001;12:74–77.

13. Davis S, Mirick DK, Stevens RG. Night shift work, light at night, and risk of breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2001;93:1557–1562.

14. Ballard T, Lagorio S, De Angelis G, et al. Cancer incidence and mortality among flight personnel: a meta-analysis. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2000;71:216–224.

15. Kliukiene J, Tynes T, Andersen A. Follow-up of radio and telegraph operators with exposure to electromagnetic fields and risk of breast cancer. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2003;12:301–307.

16. Colditz GA, Martin P, Stampfer MJ, et al. Validation of questionnaire information on risk factors and disease outcomes in a prospective cohort study of women. Am J Epidemiol. 1986;123:894–900.

17. Laden F, Neas LM, Tolbert PE, et al. Electric blanket use and breast cancer in the Nurses’ Health Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2000;152:41–49.

18. Al-Delaimy WK, Cho E, Chen WY, Colditz G, Willet WC. A prospective study of smoking and risk of breast cancer in young adult women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers. 2004;13:398–404.

Cited By:

This article has been cited 76 time(s).

Acta Medica Okayama
Shift Work and Diabetes Mellitus among Male Workers in Japan: Does the Intensity of Shift Work Matter?
Ika, K; Suzuki, E; Mitsuhashi, T; Takao, S; Doi, H
Acta Medica Okayama, 67(1): 25-33.

International Journal of Epidemiology
Light-at-night, circadian disruption and breast cancer: assessment of existing evidence
Stevens, RG
International Journal of Epidemiology, 38(4): 963-970.
Ginecologia Y Obstetricia Clinica
Breast cancer. Update in risk factors and prevention
Lopez, JS; Cases, AB; Checa, MA; Vernet, MD; Carreras, R
Ginecologia Y Obstetricia Clinica, 8(1): 29-36.

Archives Des Maladies Professionnelles Et De L Environnement
Biological clock, sleep and shift-work medical consequences
Leger, D; Bayon, V; Metlaine, A; Prevot, E; Didier-Marsac, C; Choudat, D
Archives Des Maladies Professionnelles Et De L Environnement, 70(3): 246-252.
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
The Role of Clock Genes in Pharmacology
Paschos, GK; Baggs, JE; Hogenesch, JB; FitzGerald, GA
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 50(): 187-214.
Chronobiology International
Diurnal urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels among healthy Danish nurses during work and leisure time
Hansen, AM; Garde, AH; Hansen, J
Chronobiology International, 23(6): 1203-1215.
Chronobiology International
Light at night co-distributes with incident breast but not lung cancer in the female population of Israel
Kloog, I; Haim, A; Stevens, RG; Barchana, M; Portnov, BA
Chronobiology International, 25(1): 65-81.
Chronodisruption and cancer
Erren, TC; Pape, HG; Reiter, RJ; Piekarski, C
Naturwissenschaften, 95(5): 367-382.
Cancer Causes & Control
Total visual blindness is protective against breast cancer
Flynn-Evans, EE; Stevens, RG; Tabandeh, H; Schernhammer, ES; Lockley, SW
Cancer Causes & Control, 20(9): 1753-1756.
Scandinavian Journal of Work Environment & Health
Measures to counteract the negative effects of night work
Pallesen, S; Bjorvatn, B; Mageroy, N; Saksvik, IB; Waage, S; Moen, BE
Scandinavian Journal of Work Environment & Health, 36(2): 109-120.

Cancer Detection and Prevention
Nutritional and lifestyle correlates of the cancer-protective hormone melatonin
Dopfel, RP; Schulmeister, K; Schernhammer, ES
Cancer Detection and Prevention, 31(2): 140-148.

Journal of Endocrinology
Circadian clocks: regulators of endocrine and metabolic rhythms
Hastings, M; O'Neill, JS; Maywood, ES
Journal of Endocrinology, 195(2): 187-198.
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Using directed acyclic graphs to consider adjustment for socioeconomic status in occupational cancer studies
Richiardi, L; Barone-Adesi, F; Merletti, F; Pearce, N
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 62(7): -.
ARTN e14
Integrative Cancer Therapies
Circadian Stage-Dependent Inhibition of Human Breast Cancer Metabolism and Growth by the Nocturnal Melatonin Signal: Consequences of Its Disruption by Light at Night in Rats and Women
Blask, DE; Dauchy, RT; Brainard, GC; Hanifin, JP
Integrative Cancer Therapies, 8(4): 347-353.
Signal Transduction of the Melatonin Receptor MT1 Is Disrupted in Breast Cancer Cells by Electromagnetic Fields
Girgert, R; Hanf, V; Emons, G; Grundker, C
Bioelectromagnetics, 31(3): 237-245.
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Occupational Factors and Mortality in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer
Fujino, Y
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 8(): 97-104.

Computers Environment and Urban Systems
Using kernel density function as an urban analysis tool: Investigating the association between nightlight exposure and the incidence of breast cancer in Haifa, Israel
Kloog, I; Haim, A; Portnov, BA
Computers Environment and Urban Systems, 33(1): 55-63.
Journal of Womens Health
Sleep and Health Consequences of Shift Work in Women
Chung, SA; Wolf, TK; Shapiro, CM
Journal of Womens Health, 18(7): 965-977.
Trends in Cell Biology
Healthy clocks, healthy body, healthy mind
Reddy, AB; O'Neill, JS
Trends in Cell Biology, 20(1): 36-44.
Indoor and Built Environment
The Impact of Light in Buildings on Human Health
Boyce, PR
Indoor and Built Environment, 19(1): 8-20.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention
Measuring Serum Melatonin in Epidemiologic Studies
Hsing, AW; Meyer, TE; Niwa, S; Quraishi, SM; Chu, LW
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention, 19(4): 932-937.
American Journal of Epidemiology
Shift work, light at night, and breast cancer on Long Island, New York
O'Leary, ES; Schoenfeld, ER; Stevens, RG; Kabat, GC; Henderson, K; Grimson, R; Gammon, MD; Leske, MC
American Journal of Epidemiology, 164(4): 358-366.
Integrative Cancer Therapies
Circadian Disruption in Experimental Cancer Processes
Filipski, E; Levi, F
Integrative Cancer Therapies, 8(4): 298-302.
Scandinavian Journal of Work Environment & Health
Shift work and cancer - considerations on rationale, mechanisms, and epidemiology
Costa, G; Haus, E; Stevens, R
Scandinavian Journal of Work Environment & Health, 36(2): 163-179.

Archives Des Maladies Professionnelles Et De L Environnement
Alertness trouble and risk shift work
Bayon, V; Leger, D; Choudat, D
Archives Des Maladies Professionnelles Et De L Environnement, 68(4): 378-385.

Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Effect of Light Perception on Menarche in Blind Women
Flynn-Evans, EE; Stevens, RG; Tabandeh, H; Schernhammer, ES; Lockley, SW
Ophthalmic Epidemiology, 16(4): 243-248.
Chronobiology International
Is Light-at-Night a Health Risk Factor or a Health Risk Predictor?
Kantermann, T; Roenneberg, T
Chronobiology International, 26(6): 1069-1074.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health
Morbidity of Israeli nurses in comparison to their female siblings: A retrospective cohort study
Peretz, C; Rozani, V
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 14(3): 206-209.

Shift-work: Nursing's sometimes silent partner
West, S
Collegian, 15(2): 43-44.
Archives Des Maladies Professionnelles Et De L Environnement
Monitoring to be adopted for the shift and night workers
Bayon, V; Louet, ABL; Prevot, E; Choudat, D; Leger, D
Archives Des Maladies Professionnelles Et De L Environnement, 69(): 695-707.
Mutation Research-Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis
Circadian rhythms and chemical carcinogenesis: Potential link. An overview
Oesch-Bartlomowicz, B; Weiss, C; Dietrich, C; Oesch, F
Mutation Research-Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, 680(): 83-86.
Ageing Research Reviews
A role of the circadian system and circadian proteins in aging
Kondratov, RV
Ageing Research Reviews, 6(1): 12-27.
Lancet Oncology
Carcinogenicity of shift-work, painting, and fire-fighting
Straif, K; Baan, R; Grosse, Y; Secretan, B; El Ghissassi, F; Bouvard, V; Altieri, A; Benbrahim-Tallaa, L; Cogliano, V
Lancet Oncology, 8(): 1065-1066.

Sleep duration, melatonin and breast cancer among Chinese women in Singapore
Wu, AH; Wang, RW; Koh, WP; Stanczyk, FZ; Lee, HP; Yu, MC
Carcinogenesis, 29(6): 1244-1248.
Occupational Medicine-Oxford
Shift work, light at night and risk of breast cancer
Patel, D
Occupational Medicine-Oxford, 56(6): 433.
Sleep and Biological Rhythms
Shift-work research: Where do we stand, where should we go?
Kantermann, T; Juda, M; Vetter, C; Roenneberg, T
Sleep and Biological Rhythms, 8(2): 95-105.
Journal of Advanced Nursing
Sleep quality and quality of life in female shift-working nurses
Shao, MF; Chou, YC; Yeh, MY; Tzeng, WC
Journal of Advanced Nursing, 66(7): 1565-1572.
International Journal of Fertility and Womens Medicine
Breast cancer risk in flight attendants: An update
Salhab, M; Mokbel, K
International Journal of Fertility and Womens Medicine, 51(5): 205-207.

Comparative Medicine
Fatigue and sleep during cancer and chemotherapy: Translational rodent models
Ray, M; Rogers, LQ; Trammell, RA; Toth, LA
Comparative Medicine, 58(3): 234-245.

Integrative Cancer Therapies
Therapeutic actions of melatonin in cancer: Possible mechanisms
Srinivasan, V; Spence, DW; Pandi-Perumal, SR; Trakht, I; Cardinali, DP
Integrative Cancer Therapies, 7(3): 189-203.
Integrative Cancer Therapies
Circadian Disruption, Per3, and Human Cytokine Secretion
Guess, J; Burch, JB; Ogoussan, K; Armstead, CA; Zhang, HM; Wagner, S; Hebert, JR; Wood, P; Youngstedt, SD; Hofseth, LJ; Singh, UP; Xie, DW; Hrushesky, WJM
Integrative Cancer Therapies, 8(4): 329-336.
Integrative Cancer Therapies
Light-Mediated Perturbations of Circadian Timing and Cancer Risk: A Mechanistic Analysis
Reiter, RJ; Tan, DX; Erren, TC; Fuentes-Broto, L; Paredes, SD
Integrative Cancer Therapies, 8(4): 354-360.
American Journal of Epidemiology
Night-Shift Work and Breast Cancer Risk in a Cohort of Chinese Women
Pronk, A; Ji, BT; Shu, XO; Xue, SZ; Yang, G; Li, HL; Rothman, N; Gao, YT; Zheng, W; Chow, WH
American Journal of Epidemiology, 171(9): 953-959.
Scandinavian Journal of Work Environment & Health
Cohort study of cancer risk among male and female shift workers
Schwartzbaum, J; Ahlbom, A; Feychting, M
Scandinavian Journal of Work Environment & Health, 33(5): 336-343.

Sleep and Biological Rhythms
For whom the bells toll: Networked circadian clocks
Freeman, GM; Webb, AB; An, SW; Herzog, ED
Sleep and Biological Rhythms, 6(2): 67-75.
Scandinavian Journal of Work Environment & Health
Night work and breast cancer - results from the German GENICA study
Pesch, B; Harth, V; Rabstein, S; Baisch, C; Schiffermann, M; Pallapies, D; Bonberg, N; Heinze, E; Spickenheuer, A; Justenhoven, C; Brauch, H; Hamann, U; Ko, Y; Straif, K; Bruning, T
Scandinavian Journal of Work Environment & Health, 36(2): 134-141.

Journal of Perinatology
Health consequences of shift work and implications for structural design
Figueiro, MG; White, RD
Journal of Perinatology, 33(): S17-S23.
Sleep Medicine Reviews
Melatonin, sleep disturbance and cancer risk
Blask, DE
Sleep Medicine Reviews, 13(4): 257-264.
Pharmacological Reports
Physiology and pharmacology of melatonin in relation to biological rhythms
Zawilska, JB; Skene, DJ; Arendt, J
Pharmacological Reports, 61(3): 383-410.

Mutation Research-Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis
Circadian disruption accelerates liver carcinogenesis in mice
Filipski, E; Subramanian, P; Carriere, J; Guettier, C; Barbason, H; Levi, F
Mutation Research-Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, 680(): 95-105.
Medical Journal of Australia
''There will be no more!": the legacy of the Toowong breast cancer cluster
Stewart, BW
Medical Journal of Australia, 187(3): 178-180.

Chronobiology International
Differences in sleep, light, and circadian phase in offshore 18.00-06.00 h and 19.00-07.00 h shift workers
Thorne, H; Hampton, S; Morgan, L; Skene, DJ; Arendt, J
Chronobiology International, 25(): 225-235.
Spectral Identification of Lighting Type and Character
Elvidge, CD; Keith, DM; Tuttle, BT; Baugh, KE
Sensors, 10(4): 3961-3988.
Scandinavian Journal of Work Environment & Health
Nightshift work and risk of breast cancer and other cancers - a critical review of the epiderniologic evidence
Kolstad, HA
Scandinavian Journal of Work Environment & Health, 34(1): 5-22.

Chemico-Biological Interactions
Melatonin suppresses AOM/DSS-induced large bowel oncogenesis in rats
Tanaka, T; Yasui, Y; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, T; Oyama, T; Rahman, KMW
Chemico-Biological Interactions, 177(2): 128-136.
Mutation Research-Reviews in Mutation Research
Reflections in Mutation Research Electric light causes cancer? Surely you're joking, Mr. Stevens
Stevens, RG
Mutation Research-Reviews in Mutation Research, 682(1): 1-6.
Expression of the circadian clock genes Per1 and Per2 in sporadic and familial breast tumors
Winter, SL; Bosnoyan-Collins, L; Pinnaduwage, D; Andrulis, IL
Neoplasia, 9(): 797-800.
Scandinavian Journal of Work Environment & Health
Does shift work cause cancer?
Pukkala, E; Harma, M
Scandinavian Journal of Work Environment & Health, 33(5): 321-323.

Biological Rhythm Research
Light, melatonin and cancer: current results and future perspectives
Bartsch, C; Bartsch, H; Peschke, E
Biological Rhythm Research, 40(1): 17-35.
Sleep Medicine Reviews
Shift work and cancer risk: Potential mechanistic roles of circadian disruption, light at night, and sleep deprivation
Haus, EL; Smolensky, MH
Sleep Medicine Reviews, 17(4): 273-284.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Work injury risk by time of day in two population-based data sources
Mustard, CA; Chambers, A; McLeod, C; Bielecky, A; Smith, PM
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 70(1): 49-56.
Cancer Epidemiology
Shift work, circadian gene variants and risk of breast cancer
Grundy, A; Schuetz, JM; Lai, AS; Janoo-Gilani, R; Leach, S; Burstyn, I; Richardson, H; Brooks-Wilson, A; Spinelli, JJ; Aronson, KJ
Cancer Epidemiology, 37(5): 606-612.
American Journal of Epidemiology
Sleep Disturbance and Incidence of Thyroid Cancer in Postmenopausal Women The Women's Health Initiative
Luo, JH; Sands, M; Wactawski-Wende, J; Song, YQ; Margolis, KL
American Journal of Epidemiology, 177(1): 42-49.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Night-shift work and risk of breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Kamdar, BB; Tergas, AI; Mateen, FJ; Bhayani, NH; Oh, J
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 138(1): 291-301.
Bmj Open
Psychosocial risk factors, job characteristics and self-reported health in the Paris Military Hospital Group (PMHG): a cross-sectional study
Ferrand, JF; Verret, C; Trichereau, J; Rondier, JP; Viance, P; Migliani, R
Bmj Open, 2(4): -.
ARTN e000999
Chronobiology International
Chronotype and Breast Cancer Risk in a Cohort of US Nurses
Ramin, C; Devore, EE; Pierre-Paul, J; Duffy, JF; Hankinson, SE; Schernhammer, ES
Chronobiology International, 30(9): 1181-1186.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Letter to the Editor, Re: Night-shift work and risk of breast cancer (Kamdar et al., doi:10.1007/s10549-013-2433-1)
Stevens, R; Hansen, J
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 139(1): 291-292.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Reply to the Letter to the Editor, Re: Night-shift work and risk of breast cancer (Kamdar et al., doi: 10.1007/s10549-013-2433-1)
Kamdar, BB; Tergas, AI; Mateen, FJ; Bhayani, NH; Oh, J
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 139(1): 293-294.

Oncology Reports
Bmal1 suppresses cancer cell invasion by blocking the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt-MMP-2 signaling pathway
Jung, CH; Kim, EM; Park, JK; Hwang, SG; Moon, SK; Kim, WJ; Um, HD
Oncology Reports, 29(6): 2109-2113.
Industrial Health
Effects of Shift and Night Work in the Offshore Petroleum Industry: A Systematic Review
Fossum, IN; Bjorvatn, B; Waage, S; Pallesen, S
Industrial Health, 51(5): 530-544.

American Journal of Epidemiology
Breast Cancer Among Nurses: Is the Intensity of Night Work Related to Hormone Receptor Status?
Lie, JAS; Kjuus, H; Zienolddiny, S; Haugen, A; Kjaerheim, K
American Journal of Epidemiology, 178(1): 110-117.
Validation of a Questionnaire to Screen for Shift Work Disorder
Barger, LK; Ogeil, RP; Drake, CL; O'Brien, CS; Ng, KT; Rajaratnam, SMW
Sleep, 35(): 1693-U143.
Cancer Epidemiology
Does night work increase the risk of breast cancer? A systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies
Jia, YJ; Lu, YS; Wu, KJ; Lin, Q; Shen, W; Zhu, MJ; Huang, S; Chen, J
Cancer Epidemiology, 37(3): 197-206.
International Journal of Cancer
Night work and breast cancer: A population-based case-control study in France (the CECILE study)
Menegaux, F; Truong, T; Anger, A; Cordina-Duverger, E; Lamkarkach, F; Arveux, P; Kerbrat, P; Fevotte, J; Guenel, P
International Journal of Cancer, 132(4): 924-931.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Nightshift work and risk of ovarian cancer
Bhatti, P; Cushing-Haugen, KL; Wicklund, KG; Doherty, JA; Rossing, MA
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 70(4): 231-237.
Bmc Cell Biology
Melatonin enhances DNA repair capacity possibly by affecting genes involved in DNA damage responsive pathways
Liu, R; Fu, A; Hoffman, AE; Zheng, TZ; Zhu, Y
Bmc Cell Biology, 14(): -.
Back to Top | Article Outline

© 2006 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

Twitter  Facebook 


Article Tools



Article Level Metrics