Skip Navigation LinksHome > May 2003 - Volume 14 - Issue 3 > Maternal Body Mass Index and the Risk of Preeclampsia: A Sys...
doi: 10.1097/01.EDE.0000059921.71494.D1
Brief Report

Maternal Body Mass Index and the Risk of Preeclampsia: A Systematic Overview

O’Brien, Tara E.; Ray, Joel G.; Chan, Wee-Shian

Free Access
Article Outline
Collapse Box

Author Information

From the Division of Obstetrical Medicine, Department of Medicine, Sunnybrook and Women’s College Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario.

Tara O’Brien, Sunnybrook and Women’s College Health Sciences Centre, 76 Grenville Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5S 1B2; tara.obrien@swchsc.on.ca.

Submitted 5 April 2002; final version accepted 21 January 2003.

Collapse Box


Background. Maternal obesity, both in itself and as part of the insulin resistance syndrome, is an important risk factor for the development of preeclampsia. Accurately quantifying the relation between prepregnancy maternal body mass index and the risk of preeclampsia may better identify those at highest risk. We performed a systematic overview of the literature to determine the association between prepregnancy body mass index and the risk of preeclampsia.

Methods. Two reviewers independently retrieved all relevant English language cohort studies through a systematic search of Medline and Embase between 1980 and June 2002. Study data were abstracted in a similar fashion. For each study, the risk ratio of preeclampsia was calculated by comparing the risk of preeclampsia among women with the highest body mass index with those with the lowest.

Results. We identified thirteen cohort studies, comprising nearly 1.4 million women. The risk of preeclampsia typically doubled with each 5–7 kg/m2 increase in prepregnancy body mass index. This relation persisted in studies that excluded women with chronic hypertension, diabetes mellitus or multiple gestations, or after adjustment for other confounders.

Conclusions. Most observational studies demonstrate a consistently strong positive association between maternal prepregnancy body mass index and the risk of preeclampsia. Increasing obesity in developed countries is likely to increase the occurrence of preeclampsia. Consideration should be given to the potential benefits of prepregnancy weight reduction programs.

Preeclampsia is a multisystem disease affecting between 3% and 10% of pregnancies. 1 Little is still known about the pathogenesis of preeclampsia, making its prevention an ongoing challenge. 1,2 Maternal obesity and insulin resistance are believed to be important risk factors for the development of placental endothelial dysfunction and preeclampsia. 3,4,5 The dysmetabolic syndrome (“syndrome X”) is recognizable from the presence of obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and hypertension, and is found among 7% of U.S. women of reproductive age. 6 Because an elevated body mass index (BMI; weight [kg] per height squared [m2]) is a major component of this syndrome, as well as an important risk factor for preeclampsia and other complications of pregnancy, 7 a more precise estimate of the association between maternal prepregnancy BMI and preeclampsia is needed.

We conducted a systematic overview of the association between prepregnancy BMI and preeclampsia, with two practical objectives. First, a clear summary of the association might allow better prediction of a woman’s risk of developing preeclampsia and, thus, improve clinical surveillance. Second, such a summary would be useful in predicting the possible benefits of prepregnancy weight reduction on the risk of preeclampsia.

Back to Top | Article Outline


Data Retrieval

Two investigators (T.O. and J.R.) independently searched Medline and Embase between 1980 and June 2002, using the following search terms: (“body mass index” or “obesity” or “fat” or “adiposity” or “overweight”) and (“preeclampsia” or “eclampsia” or “gestational hypertension” or “pregnancy-induced hypertension” or “toxemia”). References from review articles and research papers were also examined for other potentially eligible studies. We asked authors for additional information when data in their original publication were not sufficiently detailed. We included all English-language cohort studies that assessed the association between prepregnancy BMI as the primary exposure and preeclampsia and that included at least 50 participants. Data were independently abstracted by these two investigators, as outlined in Tables 1 and 2. We used the prepregnancy BMI categories as defined by the authors of each study, and the corresponding number of women with preeclampsia within each BMI category (Table 2).

Table 1
Table 1
Image Tools
Table 2
Table 2
Image Tools
Back to Top | Article Outline
Data Analysis

For each study, we calculated an unadjusted risk ratio (RR) for preeclampsia, comparing each higher BMI category with the lowest category, which served as the referent. An unadjusted RR and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were plotted for each. Because of differences between studies in the defined BMI categories and in participant inclusion and exclusion criteria, we chose, a priori, not to pool the risk estimates. Because some studies adjusted for various sets of covariates using multiple logistic regression analysis, those results are presented separately (Table 3).

Table 3
Table 3
Image Tools

For the second study objective, we performed a separate analysis to estimate the degree of change in the risk of preeclampsia according to increasing BMI. We plotted the data from all studies on a single scattergraph and generated a straight line of best fit. The x-axis represented the mid-point of each BMI category, and the y-axis the corresponding risk of preeclampsia. For example, for a BMI category of 24 to 26 kg/m2, a mid-point value of 25 kg/m2 was chosen. When a BMI category was defined as being greater (or less) than a specific value, then a BMI value one decimal place higher (or lower) than that value was used. For example, if the highest BMI category was “≥30.0 kg/m2”, then a value of “30.1 kg/m2” was used, whereas a BMI category of “<20 kg/m2” was designated as “19.9 kg/m2.” The latter approach, though potentially imprecise, would enable an estimation of the relation between BMI and the risk of preeclampsia.

For the second analysis, the mean and CI change in the risk of preeclampsia for each kg/m2-unit change in BMI were approximated using a weighted mixed-effects linear model. This method, analogous to a combination of linear regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA), models a data set by both the mean (ie, fixed-effects) and variance-covariance (ie, random-effects) parameters (see Appendix). Including covariance estimates in the model acknowledges that the experimental units on which the data are measured units (ie, each individual BMI-preeclampsia category) are grouped into clusters (ie, individual studies), and that the data from a common cluster are correlated. An inverse-variance–weighted mixed-effects linear model was created, accounting for the different numbers of women within each BMI-preeclampsia category. To obtain appropriate interpretations of intercepts and slopes, the BMI was centered to the study’s mean levels. Statistical significance testing was set at a 2-sided P-value less than 0.05. Mixed linear modeling was done using the MIXED Procedure in SAS Version 8 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North Carolina), whereas Meta-Analyst 0.988 (Lau J. Meta-Analyst 0.988. Boston: Meta-Analyst Statistical Software, 1995) and Microsoft Excel version 5.0c (Microsoft Corporation, 1985–1994) were used to generate the Figures.

Back to Top | Article Outline


The initial searches of Medline and Embase yielded 491 and 125 citations, respectively. Of the 13 studies that met the inclusion criteria, eight originated from the United States 8–15 and the remainder were from Sweden, 16 the Netherlands, 17 Latin and Caribbean Amer-ica, 18 Taiwan 19 and the United Kingdom (Table 1). 20 Five of the studies excluded women with chronic hypertension, 9,12,13,17,19 four excluded women with diabetes mellitus, 9,12,13,17 and nine excluded women with multiple gestations (Table 1). 8–12,14,15,17–20 All but one 15 of the study reports specified that preeclampsia was defined using established criteria defined as a blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg or a rise in systolic blood pressure >30 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure >15 mmHg after 20 weeks’ gestation, in addition to either ≥1+ dipstick proteinuria on two separate occasions, ≥2+ dipstick proteinuria on one occasion or ≥300 mg proteinuria over 24 hours. 21,22 None of the studies had masked and independent assessment of exposure and outcome.

The variation in prevalence of preeclampsia among studies is presumably related in part to the exclusion of women at high risk for preeclampsia, 9,12,17 or to geographic and ethnic differences between participants (Table 1). For example, one study included Asian women, 19 whereas others solely recruited women from North America. 8–15

A total of 1,390,226 women were included in the 13 studies. The BMI categories and corresponding percentages of preeclampsia are listed in Table 2. The risk of preeclampsia characteristically rose with increasing BMI, as did the unadjusted RR of preeclampsia (Figure 1). In most studies, there was a step-up increase in the unadjusted RR of preeclampsia with each increasing BMI category, which was most evident in the largest studies. 9,15,18,19 The risk of preeclampsia typically doubled for each 5 to 7 kg/m2 increase in BMI (Figure 1).

Figure 1
Figure 1
Image Tools

In those five studies that excluded women with chronic hypertension there appeared a nonsubstantial 12,17 or substantial 9,13,19 trend of increasing preeclampsia risk with rising prepregnancy BMI (Figure 1). Nonsubstantial 12,17 and substantial 9,19 trends were also seen in the four studies that excluded women with diabetes mellitus (Figure 1).

Eight studies used multivariate analysis to adjust for potential confounders, as listed in Table 3. Using those comparison and referent BMI categories set by the authors, all eight studies observed at least a doubling of the risk of preeclampsia with excess maternal BMI (Table 3).

Considering all 43 BMI categories from the 13 studies, and using the weighted mixed-effects linear model, the risk of preeclampsia typically rose by 0.54% (CI = 0.27–0.80) for each 1-kg/m2 increase in BMI (Figure 2).

Figure 2
Figure 2
Image Tools
Back to Top | Article Outline


In a systematic overview of 13 cohort studies we observed a consistent and linear rise in the risk of preeclampsia with increasing prepregnancy BMI.

Back to Top | Article Outline
Weaknesses and Strengths

We avoided deriving a pooled estimate of the RR of preeclampsia, principally because each study defined the BMI categories differently. Although we chose to plot the relation among the 43 BMI categories and the corresponding preeclampsia rates from all 13 studies (Figure 2), we did so knowing that the result should be interpreted with caution. Even so it might be useful as a research tool (see below). Our use of the mid-point value for each BMI category may have approximated the true mean BMI imprecisely within that category. For the lowest and highest BMI categories, we used values that were closest to the respective category cutoff values, likely leading to an overestimate of the true relation between BMI and preeclampsia. We further acknowledge that study publication bias, with the omission of negative studies, also might have led to an overestimate of the relation between prepregnancy BMI and preeclampsia.

The observed association between prepregnancy BMI and preeclampsia may be confounded by the presence of chronic hypertension, 23 diabetes mellitus 24 and other elements of the dysmetabolic syndrome, 5 each of which are known risk factors for preeclampsia. When we evaluated studies that either excluded women with chronic hypertension or diabetes mellitus, or that adjusted for the presence of these and other confounders, the relation between maternal BMI and preeclampsia usually remained unchanged. 9,13,19,20 Thus, it is likely that elevated BMI is an independent predictor of preeclampsia risk, just as for other adverse pregnancy events. 7

We considered only those studies that assessed prepregnancy BMI as a primary exposure. BMI is a better overall measure of obesity than weight alone. 23 Although seven 9,10,12,13,15–17 of the 13 cohort studies used self-reported prepregnancy height and weight for the calculation of BMI, this method reliably approximates measured BMI. 25

Back to Top | Article Outline
Mechanisms of Disease

There is likely more than one mechanism underlying the relation of prepregnancy obesity to preeclampsia. Placental vasculopathy and endothelial dysfunction appear central to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. 1,3,26,27 Individuals with the dysmetabolic syndrome, of which obesity is a major feature, also exhibit chronic hypertriglyceridemia, a risk factor for endothelial dysfunction. 28 Hyperlipidemia may also alter prostaglandin regulation, leading to arteriolar constriction, 27 whereas biomarkers of insulin resistance, including plasminogen activator inhibitor, leptin and tumor necrosis factor, appear higher in women with preeclampsia. 29–31 Finally, obesity, a major risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea and associated hypertension, 32 is commonly found in pregnant women with disordered breathing during sleep. 33 Preeclamptic women with obstructive sleep apnea have higher blood pressure during obstructive periods. 34

Back to Top | Article Outline
Future Research

We observed a continuous relation between prepregnancy BMI and the risk of preeclampsia. Further work could explore the interplay between BMI and other common risk factors for preeclampsia, including maternal age, gravidity and ethnicity. Taken together, these risk factors might enable better prediction of a woman’s risk of preeclampsia.

It is not known whether a program of lifestyle modification, including prepregnancy weight loss, can reduce the risk of preeclampsia. A randomized clinical trial might usefully evaluate this question among obese women of reproductive age. Both the exposure (ie, obesity) 35 and the outcome (ie, preeclampsia) 1 are common, and screening for obesity requires little time or special equipment. 36 Second, there are other potential benefits to prepregnancy weight loss, including lower risk of gestational diabetes mellitus, Cesarean delivery, and perinatal morbidity and mortality. 37 Moreover, obesity before pregnancy is a major predictor of obesity later in life, which is commonly associated with the development of chronic hypertension, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus. 38

Two randomized clinical trials among middle-aged obese adults with glucose intolerance clearly demonstrated that dietary modification, increased physical activity, and weight loss can be achieved, with a 50% reduction in subsequent type 2 diabetes mellitus. 39,40–42 Based on results of our linear models, prepregnancy weight reduction might produce an approximately 0.54% decrease in the rate of preeclampsia per 1-kg/m2 decline in BMI.

Back to Top | Article Outline


We thank Marian J. Vermeulen for her helpful comments about the data analyses.

Back to Top | Article Outline

The weighted mixed effects linear model may be written as:EQUATION

Equation U1
Equation U1
Image Tools

fixed effects random effects

where, BMI ij denotes i th body mass index measure within the j th study, Y ij is the rate of preeclampsia for the i th BMI measure within the j th study, γ00 is the overall intercept, γ10 is the overall slope, u0j is the variation between study intercepts, u1j is the variation between study slopes and rij is the random error associated. Cited Here...

Back to Top | Article Outline


1. Roberts JM, Cooper DW. Pathogenesis and genetics of pre-eclampsia. Lancet 2001; 357: 53–56.

2. Dekker G, Sibai B. Primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention of pre-eclampsia. Lancet 2001; 357: 209–215.

3. Hayman R, Brockelsby J, Kenny L, Baker P. Preeclampsia: the endothelium, circulating factor(s) and vascular endothelial growth factor. J Soc Gynecol Investig 1999; 6: 3–10.

4. Solomon CG, Seely EW. Brief review: hypertension in pregnancy: a manifestation of the insulin resistance syndrome? Hypertension 2001; 37: 232–239.

5. Barden AE, Beilin LJ, Ritchie J, Walters BN, Micheal C. Does a predisposition to the metabolic syndrome sensitize women to develop pre-eclampsia? J Hypertens 1999; 17: 1307–1315.

6. Ford ES, Giles WH, Dietz WH. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among U.S. adults. Findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. JAMA 2002; 287: 356–359.

7. Cnattingius S, Bergstrom R, Lipworth L, Kramer MS. Prepregnancy weight and the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. N Engl J Med 1998; 338: 147–152.

8. Edwards LE, Hellerstedt WL, Alton IR, Story M, Himes JH. Pregnancy complications and birth outcomes in obese and normal-weight women: effects of gestational weight change. Obstet Gynecol 1996; 87: 389–394.

9. Sibai BM, Ewell M, Levine RJ, et al. Risk factors associated with preeclampsia in healthy nulliparous women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1997; 177: 1003–1010.

10. Ogunyemi D, Hullett S, Leeper J, Risk A. Prepregnancy body mass index, weight gain during pregnancy, and perinatal outcome in a rural Black population. J Matern Fetal Med 1998; 7: 190–193.

11. Bianco AT, Smilen SW, Davis Y, Lopez S, Lapinski R, Lockwood C. Pregnancy outcome and weight gain recommendations for the morbidly obese woman. Obstet Gynecol 1998; 91: 97–102.

12. Bowers D, Cohen W. Obesity and related pregnancy complications in an inner-city clinic. J Perinatol 1999; 19: 216–219.

13. Thadhani R, Stampfer MJ, Hunter DJ, Manson JE, Solomon CG, Curhan GC. High body mass index and hypercholesterolemia: risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 1999; 94: 543–550.

14. Steinfeld JD, Valentine S, Lerer T, Ingardia CJ, Wax JR, Curry JL. Obesity-related complications of pregnancy vary by race. J Matern Fetal Med 2000; 9: 238–241.

15. Baeten JM, Bukusi EA, Lambe M. Pregnancy complications and outcomes among overweight and obese nulliparous women. Am J Public Health 2001; 91: 436–440.

16. Ros HS, Cnattingius S, Lipworth L. Comparison of risk factors for preeclampsia and gestational hypertension in a population-based cohort study. Am J Epiemiol 1998; 147: 1062–1070.

17. Knuist M, Bonsel GJ, Zondervan HA, Treffers PE. Risk factors for preeclampsia in nulliparous women in distinct ethnic groups: a prospective study. Obstet Gynecol 1998; 92: 174–178.

18. Conde-Agudelo A, Belizan J. Risk factors for pre-eclampsia in a large cohort of Latin American and Caribbean women. Br J Obstet Gynecol 2000; 107: 75–83.

19. Lee CJ, Hsieh TT, Chiu TH, Chen KC, Lo LM, Hung TH. Risk factors for pre-eclampsia in an Asian population. Int J Gynecol and Obstet 2000; 70: 327–333.

20. Sebire N, Jolly M, Harris JP, et al. Maternal obesity and pregnancy outcome: a study of 287,213 pregnancies in London. Int J Obes 2001; 25: 1175–1182.

21. National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy. Report on high blood pressure in pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1990; 163: 1689–1712.

22. National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy. Report of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group of High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2000; 183: S1–S22.

23. Ray JG, Burrows R, Burrows EA, Vermeulen M. MOS HIP: McMaster outcome study of hypertension in pregnancy 1 (MOS HIP 1). Early Hum Dev 2001; 64: 129–143.

24. Ray JG, Vermeulen MJ, Shapiro JL, Kenshole AB. Maternal and neonatal outcomes in pregestational and gestational diabetes mellitus, and the influence of maternal obesity and weight gain: the DEPOSIT study. QJM 2001; 94: 347–356.

25. Willett W, Stampfer MJ, Lipnick BC, et al. Cigarette smoking, relative weight and menopause. Am J Epidemiol 1983; 117: 651–658.

26. DeWolf F, Brosens I, Renaer M. Fetal growth retardation and the maternal arterial supply in the human placenta in the absence of sustained hypertension. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1980; 87: 678–685.

27. Roberts JM, Taylor RN, Goldfein A. Clinical and biochemical evidence of endothelial cell dysfunction in the pregnancy syndrome pre-eclampsia. Am J Hypertens 1991; 4: 700–708.

28. de Man FH, Weverling-Rijnsburger AW, van der Laarse A, Smelt AH, Jukema JW, Blauw GJ. Not acute but chronic hypertriglyceridemia is associated with impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation: reversal after lipid-lowering therapy by atorvastatin. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2000; 20: 744–750.

29. McCarthy JF, Misra DN, Roberts JM. Maternal plasma leptin is increased in preeclampsia and positively correlates with fetal cord concentration. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999; 180: 731–36.

30. Estelles A, Gilabert J, Grancha S et al. Abnormal expression of type 1 plasminogen activator and tissue factor in severe preeclampsia. Thromb Haemost 1998; 79: 500–8.

31. Vince GS, Startkey PM, Austgulen R, Kwiatkowski D, Redman CW. Interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor and soluble tumour factor receptors in women with pre-eclampsia. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1995; 102: 20–5.

32. Berger HA, Somers VK, Phillips BG. Sleep disordered breathing and hypertension. Curr Opin Pulm Med 2001; 7: 386–90.

33. Maasilta P, Bachour A, Teramo K, Polo O, Laitinen LA. Sleep-related disordered breathing during pregnancy in obese women. Chest 2001; 120: 1448–1454.

34. Edwards N, Blyton DM, Kirjavainen TT, Sullivan CE. Hemodynamic responses to obstructive respiratory events during sleep are augmented in women with preeclampsia. Am J Hypertens 2001; 14: 1090–1095.

35. Solomon CG, Willett WC, Carey VJ, et al. A prospective study of pregravid determinants of gestational diabetes mellitus. JAMA 1997; 278: 1078–1083.

36. Kiernan M, Winkleby MA. Identifying patients for weight-loss treatment: an empirical evaluation of the NHLBI obesity education initiative expert panel treatment recommendations. Arch Intern Med 2000; 160: 2169–2176.

37. Lu GC, Rouse DJ, DuBard M, Cliver S, Kimberlin D, Harith JC. The effect of the increasing prevalence of maternal obesity on perinatal morbidity. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2001; 185: 845–849.

38. Brown CD, Higgins M, Donato KA, et al. Body mass index and the prevalence of hypertension and dyslipidemia. Obes Res 2000; 8: 605–619.

39. Tuomilehto J, Lindstrom J, Eriksson JG, et al. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. N Engl J Med 2001; 344: 1343–1350.

40. Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med 2002; 346: 393–403.

Cited By:

This article has been cited 145 time(s).

Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
Risk factors of early and late onset pre-eclampsia
Aksornphusitaphong, A; Phupong, V
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research, 39(3): 627-631.
Annals of Human Biology
Impact of risk factors on hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, in primiparae and multiparae
Alves, E; Azevedo, A; Rodrigues, T; Santos, AC; Barros, H
Annals of Human Biology, 40(5): 377-384.
Modeling the Potential Public Health Impact of Prepregnancy Obesity on Adverse Fetal and Infant Outcomes
Honein, MA; Devine, O; Sharma, AJ; Rasmussen, SA; Park, S; Kucik, JE; Boyle, C
Obesity, 21(6): 1276-1283.
Contemporary Clinical Trials
The Maternal Obesity Management (MOM) Trial Protocol: A lifestyle intervention during pregnancy to minimize downstream obesity
Adamo, KB; Ferraro, ZM; Goldfield, G; Keely, E; Stacey, D; Hadjiyannakis, S; Jean-Philippe, S; Walker, M; Barrowman, NJ
Contemporary Clinical Trials, 35(1): 87-96.
Plos Medicine
Preeclampsia as a Risk Factor for Diabetes: A Population-Based Cohort Study
Feig, DS; Shah, BR; Lipscombe, LL; Wu, CF; Ray, JG; Lowe, J; Hwee, J; Booth, GL
Plos Medicine, 10(4): -.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Maternal Obesity Is Associated With the Formation of Small Dense LDL and Hypoadiponectinemia in the Third Trimester
Meyer, BJ; Stewart, FM; Brown, EA; Cooney, J; Nilsson, S; Olivecrona, G; Ramsay, JE; Griffin, BA; Caslake, MJ; Freeman, DJ
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 98(2): 643-652.
Obesity Surgery
Pregnancy Outcomes after Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy in Morbidly Obese Korean Patients
Han, SM; Kim, WW; Moon, R; Rosenthal, RJ
Obesity Surgery, 23(6): 756-759.
Stem Cells and Development
High Aminopeptidase N/CD13 Levels Characterize Human Amniotic Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Drive Their Increased Adipogenic Potential in Obese Women
Iaffaldano, L; Nardelli, C; Raia, M; Mariotti, E; Ferrigno, M; Quaglia, F; Labruna, G; Capobianco, V; Capone, A; Maruotti, GM; Pastore, L; Di Noto, R; Martinelli, P; Sacchetti, L; Del Vecchio, L
Stem Cells and Development, 22(): 2287-2297.
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Gestational weight gain as a risk factor for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy
Macdonald-Wallis, C; Tilling, K; Fraser, A; Nelson, SM; Lawlor, DA
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 209(4): -.
ARTN 327.e1
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Advanced lipoprotein measures and recurrent preterm birth
Thorp, JM; Rice, MM; Harper, M; Klebanoff, M; Sorokin, Y; Varner, MW; Wapner, RJ; Caritis, SN; Iams, JD; Peaceman, AM; Mercer, BM; Sciscione, A; Rouse, DJ; Ramin, SM; Anderson, GB
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 209(4): -.
ARTN 342.e1
Maternal and child undernutrition and overweight in low-income and middle-income countries
Black, RE; Victora, CG; Walker, SP; Bhutta, ZA; Christian, P; de Onis, M; Ezzati, M; Grantham-McGregor, S; Katz, J; Martorell, R; Uauy, R
Lancet, 382(): 427-451.
Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Influencing factors for late-onset preeclampsia
Ornaghi, S; Tyurmorezova, A; Algeri, P; Giardini, V; Ceruti, P; Vertemati, E; Vergani, P
Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 26(): 1299-1302.
Gynecological Endocrinology
Female obesity: short- and long-term consequences on the offspring
Galliano, D; Bellver, J
Gynecological Endocrinology, 29(7): 626-631.
Patterns of gestational weight gain in healthy, low-risk pregnant women without co-morbidities
Daemers, DOA; Wijnen, HAA; van Limbeek, EBM; Bude, LM; de Vries, RG
Midwifery, 29(5): 535-541.
Bmj Open
Pre-pregnancy body mass index and the risk of adverse outcome in type 1 diabetic pregnancies: a population-based cohort study
Persson, M; Pasupathy, D; Hanson, U; Westgren, M; Norman, M
Bmj Open, 2(1): -.
ARTN e000601
Preventive Medicine
Is obesity still increasing among pregnant women? Prepregnancy obesity trends in 20 states, 2003-2009
Fisher, SC; Kim, SY; Sharma, AJ; Rochat, R; Morrow, B
Preventive Medicine, 56(6): 372-378.
Risk Factors and Outcomes of Maternal Obesity and Excessive Weight Gain During Pregnancy
Gaillard, R; Durmus, B; Hofman, A; Mackenbach, JP; Steegers, EAP; Jaddoe, VWV
Obesity, 21(5): 1046-1055.
American Journal of Perinatology
Is Obesity an Independent Barrier to Obtaining Prenatal Care?
Levine, LD; Landsberger, EJ; Bernstein, PS; Chazotte, C; Srinivas, SK
American Journal of Perinatology, 30(5): 401-405.
Bjog-An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Changes in booking body mass index over a decade: retrospective analysis from a Glasgow Maternity Hospital
Kanagalingam, MG; Forouhi, NG; Greer, IA; Sattar, N
Bjog-An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 112(): 1431-1433.
American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism
Increased plasma levels of adipokines in preeclampsia: relationship to placenta and adipose tissue gene expression
Haugen, F; Ranheim, T; Harsem, NK; Lips, E; Staff, AC; Drevon, CA
American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism, 290(2): E326-E333.
Diabetes Care
Abdominal Visceral Adiposity in the First Trimester Predicts Glucose Intolerance in Later Pregnancy
Martin, AM; Berger, H; Nisenbaum, R; Lausman, AY; MacGarvie, S; Crerar, C; Ray, JG
Diabetes Care, 32(7): 1308-1310.
Bjog-An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Brief overview of maternal triglycerides as a risk factor for pre-eclampsia
Ray, JG; Diamond, P; Singh, G; Bell, CM
Bjog-An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 113(4): 379-386.
Hypertension in Pregnancy
Serum adiponectin concentration prior to clinical onset of preeclampsia
Odden, N; Henriksen, T; Holter, E; Skar, AG; Tjade, T; Morkrid, L
Hypertension in Pregnancy, 25(2): 129-142.
Molecular Reproduction and Development
Impaired cytotrophoblast cell-cell fusion is associated with reduced syncytin and increased apoptosis in patients with placental dysfunction
Langbein, M; Strick, R; Strissel, PL; Vogt, N; Parsch, H; Beckmann, MW; Schild, RL
Molecular Reproduction and Development, 75(1): 175-183.
Bjog-An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Hyperglycaemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) Study: associations with maternal body mass index
Metzger, BE
Bjog-An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 117(5): 575-584.
Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Management of maternal obesity prior to and during pregnancy
Shaikh, H; Robinson, S; Teoh, TG
Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 15(2): 77-82.
Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Pregnancy outcome of women using atypical antipsychotic drugs: A prospective comparative study
McKenna, K; Koren, G; Tetelbaum, M; Wilton, L; Shakir, S; Diav-Citrin, O; Levinson, A; Zipursky, RB; Einarson, A
Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 66(4): 444-449.

Clinical Science
BMI: new aspects of a classical risk factor for hypertensive disorders in pregnancy
Leeners, B; Rath, W; Kuse, S; Irawan, C; Imthurn, B; Neumaier-Wagner, P
Clinical Science, 111(1): 81-86.
Journal of Womens Health
Pregnancy and obesity: A review and agenda for future research
Sarwer, DB; Allison, KC; Gibbons, LM; Markowitz, JT; Nelson, DB
Journal of Womens Health, 15(6): 720-733.

Bjog-An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Obesity in pregnancy
Yu, CKH; Teoh, TG; Robinson, S
Bjog-An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 113(): 1117-1125.
International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics
Reduced plasma adiponectin and elevated leptin in pre-eclampsia
Ouyang, YQ; Chen, H; Chen, HZ
International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 98(2): 110-114.
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Obesity and pregnancy
Dixit, A; Girling, JC
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 28(1): 14-23.
Breast Cancer Research
Risk of breast cancer among daughters of mothers with diabetes: a population-based cohort study
Stephansson, O; Granath, F; Ekbom, A; Michels, KB
Breast Cancer Research, 12(1): -.
Ethnicity & Disease
The Effect of Language Preference on Prenatal Weight Gain and Postpartum Weight Retention in Urban Hispanic Women
Hackley, B; Fennie, K; Applebaum, J; Berry, D; Melkus, GD
Ethnicity & Disease, 20(2): 162-168.

American Journal of Transplantation
Letter to the Editor
Reese, PP; Huverserian, A; Bloom, RD
American Journal of Transplantation, 9(8): 1967.
Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Setting maternity care standards for women with obesity in pregnancy
Fitzsimons, KJ; Modder, J
Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 15(2): 100-107.
Hypertension in Pregnancy
Obesity and the Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy
Callaway, LK; O'Callaghan, M; McIntyre, HD
Hypertension in Pregnancy, 28(4): 473-493.
Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Obesity in pregnancy: prevalence and metabolic consequences
Huda, SS; Brodie, LE; Sattar, N
Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 15(2): 70-76.
Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Maternal obesity: consequences for children, challenges for clinicians and carers
McGuire, W; Dyson, L; Renfrew, M
Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 15(2): 108-112.
International Journal of Epidemiology
Commentary: On the clinical prediction of pre-eclampsia and its enigmatic aetiology
Irgens, LM
International Journal of Epidemiology, 36(2): 420-421.
Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
The change in concentrations of angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors in maternal plasma between the first and second trimesters in risk assessment for the subsequent development of preeclampsia and small-for-gestational age
Erez, O; Romero, R; Espinoza, J; Fu, WJ; Todem, D; Kusanovic, JP; Gotsch, F; Edwin, S; Nien, JK; Chaiworapongsa, T; Mittal, P; Mazaki-Tovi, S; Than, NG; Gomez, R; Hassan, SS
Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 21(5): 279-287.
Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Obesity, gestational diabetes and pregnancy outcome
Yogev, Y; Visser, GHA
Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 14(2): 77-84.
Reproductive Sciences
Circulating and Uteroplacental Adipocytokine Concentrations in Preeclampsia
Herse, F; Youpeng, B; Staff, AC; Yong-Meid, J; Dechend, R; Rong, Z
Reproductive Sciences, 16(6): 584-590.
Molecular Human Reproduction
Identification of two novel quantitative trait loci for pre-eclampsia susceptibility on chromosomes 5q and 13q using a variance components-based linkage approach
Johnson, MP; Fitzpatrick, E; Dyer, TD; Jowett, JBM; Brennecke, SP; Blangero, J; Moses, EK
Molecular Human Reproduction, 13(1): 61-67.
Bjog-An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Accuracy of body mass index in predicting pre-eclampsia: bivariate meta-analysis
Cnossen, JS; Leeflang, MMG; de Haan, EEM; Mol, BWJ; van der Post, JAM; Khan, KS; ter Riete, G
Bjog-An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 114(): 1477-1485.
Gynecologie Obstetrique & Fertilite
Pregnancy in obese patients: which risks is it necessary to fear?
Ducarme, G; Rodrigues, A; Aissaoui, F; Davitian, C; Pharisien, I; Uzan, M
Gynecologie Obstetrique & Fertilite, 35(1): 19-24.
Gender specific aspects in metabolic syndrome
Weickert, MO; Pfeiffer, AFH
Diabetologe, 4(3): 182-+.
Plos One
Severe Obesity in Young Women and Reproductive Health: The Danish National Birth Cohort
Nohr, EA; Timpson, NJ; Andersen, CS; Smith, GD; Olsen, J; Sorensen, TIA
Plos One, 4(): -.
ARTN e8444
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) study: preeclampsia
Yogev; Chen; Hod; Coustan; Oats; McIntyre; Metzger; Lowe; Dyer; Dooley; Trimble; McCance; Hadden; Persson; Rogers
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 202(3): -.
ARTN 255.e1
European Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology and Reproductive Biology
Pregnancy outcome in obese and morbidly obese gestational diabetic women
Yogev, Y; Langer, O
European Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 137(1): 21-26.
Public Health Reports
Maternal obesity and risk of infant death based on Florida birth records for 2004
Thompson, DR; Clark, CL; Wood, B; Beth, M
Public Health Reports, 123(4): 487-493.

Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Maternal BMI and preterm birth: A systematic review of the literature with meta-analysis
Torloni, MR; Betran, AP; Daher, S; Widmer, M; Dolan, SM; Menon, R; Bergel, E; Allen, T; Merialdi, M
Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 22(): 957-970.
Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Searching one or two databases was insufficient for meta-analysis of observational studies
Lemeshow, AR; Blum, RE; Berlin, JA; Stoto, MA; Colditz, GA
Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 58(9): 867-873.
Birth Defects Research Part A-Clinical and Molecular Teratology
Teratology public affairs committee position paper: Maternal obesity and pregnancy
Scialli, AR
Birth Defects Research Part A-Clinical and Molecular Teratology, 76(2): 73-77.
Drug Development Research
Metabolic syndrome and higher risk of maternal placental syndromes and cardiovascular disease
Ray, JG
Drug Development Research, 67(7): 607-611.
Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation
Risk indicators of pre-eclampsia in North Jordan: Is dental caries involved?
Khader, Y; Jibreal, M; Burgan, S; Amarin, Z
Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation, 63(4): 181-187.
Trends in Molecular Medicine
Does the fetal genotype affect maternal physiology during pregnancy?
Petry, CJ; Ong, KK; Dunger, DB
Trends in Molecular Medicine, 13(): 414-421.
Cadernos De Saude Publica
Waist circumference in the prediction of obesity-related adverse pregnancy outcomes
Wendland, EMDR; Duncan, BB; Mengue, SS; Nucci, LB; Schmidt, MI
Cadernos De Saude Publica, 23(2): 391-398.

American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Abnormal endothelium-dependent microvascular dilator reactivity in pregnancies complicated by normotensive intrauterine growth restriction
Koopmans, CM; Blaauw, J; van Pampus, MG; Rakhorst, G; Aarnoudse, JG
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 200(1): -.
ARTN 66.e1
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
The influence of obesity and diabetes on the prevalence of macrosomia
Ehrenberg, HM; Mercer, BM; Catalano, PM
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 191(3): 964-968.
Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation
Plasma cell membrane glycoprotein-1 K121Q polymorphism in preeclampsia
Saarela, T; Hiltunen, M; Helisalmi, S; Heinonen, S; Laakso, M
Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation, 61(3): 124-127.
Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
Determination of maternal body composition in pregnancy and its relevance to perinatal outcomes
McCarthy, EA; Strauss, BJG; Walker, SP; Permezel, M
Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey, 59(): 731-742.

Sibai, B; Dekker, G; Kupferminc, M
Lancet, 365(): 785-799.

American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Mapping the theories of preeclampsia: The need for systematic reviews of mechanisms of the disease
Mignini, LE; Villar, J; Khan, KS
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 194(2): 317-321.
Hypertension Research
Normal and high-normal blood pressures, but not body mass index, are risk factors for the subsequent occurrence of both preeclampsia and gestational hypertension: A retrospective cohort study
Ohkuchi, A; Iwasaki, R; Suzuki, H; Hirashima, C; Takahashi, K; Usui, R; Matsubara, S; Minakami, H; Suzuki, M
Hypertension Research, 29(3): 161-167.

Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Risk of prematurity, low birthweight and pre-eclampsia in relation to working hours and physical activities: a systematic review
Bonzini, M; Coggon, D; Palmer, KT
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 64(4): 228-243.
Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Mortality of mothers from cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular causes following pregnancy complications in first delivery
Lykke, JA; Langhoff-Roos, J; Lockwood, CJ; Triche, EW; Paidas, MJ
Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 24(4): 323-330.
Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
The association between glucose challenge test, obesity and pregnancy outcome in 6390 non-diabetic women
Yogev, Y; Langer, O; Xenakis, EMJ; Rosenn, B
Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 17(1): 29-34.
Cardiovascular health after maternal placental syndromes (CHAMPS): population-based retrospective cohort study
Ray, JG; Vermeulen, MJ; Schull, MJ; Redelmeier, DA
Lancet, 366(): 1797-1803.

American Journal of Epidemiology
Inflammation and triglycerides partially mediate the effect of prepregnancy body mass index on the risk of preeclampsia
Bodnar, LM; Ness, RB; Harger, GF; Roberts, JM
American Journal of Epidemiology, 162(): 1198-1206.
Diabetes Care
ATLANTIC DIP: The Impact of Obesity on Pregnancy Outcome in Glucose-Tolerant Women
Owens, LA; O'Sullivan, EP; Kirwan, B; Avalos, G; Gaffney, G; Dunne, F
Diabetes Care, 33(3): 577-579.
Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Obesity in pregnancy: outcomes and economics
Rowlands, I; Graves, N; de Jersey, S; McIntyre, HD; Callaway, L
Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 15(2): 94-99.
Annals of Epidemiology
The risk of preeclampsia rises with increasing prepregnancy body mass index
Bodnar, LM; Ness, RB; Markovic, N; Roberts, JM
Annals of Epidemiology, 15(7): 475-482.
Nutrition Reviews
Nutrition and pregnancy outcome
Henriksen, T
Nutrition Reviews, 64(5): S19-S23.
Shared constitutional risks for maternal vascular-related pregnancy complications and future cardiovascular disease
Berends, AL; de Groot, CJM; Sijbrands, EJ; Sie, MPS; Benneheij, SH; Pal, R; Heydanus, R; Oostra, BA; van Duijn, CM; Steegers, EAP
Hypertension, 51(4): 1034-1041.
Arquivos Brasileiros De Cardiologia
Study on the major maternal risk factors in hypertensive syndromes
Assis, TR; Viana, FP; Rassi, S
Arquivos Brasileiros De Cardiologia, 91(1): 11-16.

Hypertensive Pregnancy Disorders and Subsequent Cardiovascular Morbidity and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in the Mother
Lykke, JA; Langhoff-Roos, J; Sibai, BM; Funai, EF; Triche, EW; Paidas, MJ
Hypertension, 53(6): 944-U102.
Fertility and Sterility
Is the use of donor sperm associated with a higher incidence of preeclampsia in women who achieve pregnancy after intrauterine insemination?
Kyrou, D; Kolibianakis, EM; Devroey, P; Fatemi, HM
Fertility and Sterility, 93(4): 1124-1127.
American Heart Journal
Cardiovascular sequelae of preeclampsia/eclampsia: A systematic review and meta-analyses
McDonald, SD; Malinowski, A; Zhou, Q; Yusuf, S; Devereaux, PJ
American Heart Journal, 156(5): 918-930.
British Journal of Nutrition
Cut-off points for anthropometric indices of adiposity: differential classification in a large population of young women
Duggleby, SL; Jackson, AA; Godfrey, KM; Robinson, SM; Inskip, HM
British Journal of Nutrition, 101(3): 424-430.
Reproductive Sciences
Neutrophil Infiltration and Systemic Vascular Inflammation in Obese Women
Shah, TJ; Leik, CE; Walsh, SW
Reproductive Sciences, 17(2): 116-124.
Human Reproduction Update
Maternal metabolism and obesity: modifiable determinants of pregnancy outcome
Nelson, SM; Matthews, P; Poston, L
Human Reproduction Update, 16(3): 255-275.
Sao Paulo Medical Journal
Risk factors for cardiovascular disease ten years after preeclampsia
Canti, ICT; Komlos, M; Martins-Costa, SH; Ramos, JGL; Capp, E; Corleta, HV
Sao Paulo Medical Journal, 128(1): 10-13.

Response: Adiponectin concentrations in preeclampsia
Sattar, N; Ramsey, J; Jamieson, N; Greer, IA
Hypertension, 43(4): E17.

Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Obesity and pregnancy
Andreasen, KR; Andersen, ML; Schantz, AL
Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 83(): 1022-1029.

Genetic Testing
Adiponectin gene haplotype is associated with preeclampsia
Saarela, T; Hiltunen, M; Helisalmi, S; Heinonen, S; Laakso, M
Genetic Testing, 10(1): 35-39.

Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology
Pre-eclampsia: Contribution of maternal constitutional factors and the consequences for cardiovascular health
Barden, A
Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, 33(9): 826-830.
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
A new metabolic scoring system for analyzing the risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy
Dane, B; Dane, C; Kiray, M; Koldas, M; Cetin, A
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 280(6): 921-924.
Atherosclerosis Supplements
Do pregnancy complications and CVD share common antecedents?
Sattar, N
Atherosclerosis Supplements, 5(2): 3-7.
Mediators of Inflammation
Vascular endothelial growth factor and placenta growth factor in intrauterine growth-restricted fetuses and neonates
Malamitsi-Puchner, A; Boutsikou, T; Economou, E; Sarandakou, A; Makrakis, E; Hassiakos, D; Creatsas, G
Mediators of Inflammation, (5): 293-297.
Perinatal circulating visfatin levels in intrauterine growth restriction
Malamitsi-Puchner, A; Briana, DD; Boutsikou, M; Kouskouni, E; Hassiakos, D; Gourgiotis, D
Pediatrics, 119(6): E1314-E1318.
Diabetes Care
Use of maternal GHb concentration to estimate the risk of congenital anomalies in the offspring of women with prepregnancy diabetes
Guerin, A; Nisenbaum, R; Ray, JG
Diabetes Care, 30(7): 1920-1925.
British Medical Journal
Prepregnancy cardiovascular risk factors as predictors of pre-eclampsia: population based cohort study
Magnussen, EB; Vatten, LJ; Lund-Nilsen, TI; Salvesen, KA; Smith, GD; Romundstad, PR
British Medical Journal, 335(): 978-981.
Obesity Reviews
Obesity as an independent risk factor for elective and emergency caesarean delivery in nulliparous women - systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies
Poobalan, AS; Aucott, LS; Gurung, T; Smith, WCS; Bhattacharya, S
Obesity Reviews, 10(1): 28-35.
Hypertension in Pregnancy
Interactions Between Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress in Preeclampsia
Ouyang, YQ; Li, SJ; Zhang, Q; Cai, HB; Chen, HP
Hypertension in Pregnancy, 28(1): 56-62.
Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America
Pregnancy and Obesity
Yogev, Y; Catalano, PM
Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America, 36(2): 285-+.
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Prepregnancy body mass index, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, and long-term maternal mortality
Samuels-Kalow, ME; Funai, EF; Buhimschi, C; Norwitz, E; Perrin, M; Calderon-Margalit, R; Deutsch, L; Paltiel, O; Friedlander, Y; Manor, O; Harlap, S
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 197(5): -.
ARTN 490.e6
American Journal of Nephrology
Nocturnal hypertension is associated with an exacerbation of the endothelial damage in preeclampsia
Bouchlariotou, S; Liakopoulos, V; Dovas, S; Giannopoulou, M; Kiropoulos, T; Zarogiannis, S; Gatselos, G; Zachopoulos, T; Kyriakou, DS; Kallitsaris, A; Messinis, I; Stefanidis, I
American Journal of Nephrology, 28(3): 424-430.
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Long-term maternal and subsequent pregnancy outcomes 5 years after hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets (HELLP) syndrome
Habli, M; Eftekhari, N; Wiebracht, E; Bombrys, A; Khabbaz, M; How, H; Sibai, B
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 201(4): -.
ARTN 385.e1
Nutrition Reviews
Role of nutrition in the risk of preeclampsia
Xu, HR; Shatenstein, B; Luo, ZC; Wei, SQ; Fraser, W
Nutrition Reviews, 67(): 639-657.
Diabetic Medicine
Pregnancy in women with Type 2 diabetes: who takes metformin and what is the outcome?
Hughes, RCE; Rowan, JA
Diabetic Medicine, 23(3): 318-322.

Annual Review of Nutrition
Maternal obesity, metabolism and pregnancy outcomes
King, JC
Annual Review of Nutrition, 26(): 271-291.
Journal of Human Hypertension
Maternal risk factors for hypertensive disorders in pregnancy: a multivariate approach
Poon, LCY; Kametas, NA; Chelemen, T; Leal, A; Nicolaides, KH
Journal of Human Hypertension, 24(2): 104-110.
Medical Hypotheses
Hyperuricaemia and preeclampsia: is there a pathogenic link?
Schackis, RC
Medical Hypotheses, 63(2): 239-244.
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Obstetric outcomes associated with increase in BMI category during pregnancy
Kabiru, W; Raynor, BD
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 191(3): 928-932.
American Journal of Hypertension
Determination of insulin resistance using the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) and its relation with the risk of developing pregnancy-induced hypertension
Sierra-Laguado, J; Garcia, RG; Celedon, J; Arenas-Mantilla, M; Pradilla, LP; Camacho, PA; Lopez-Jaramillo, P
American Journal of Hypertension, 20(4): 437-442.
Hypertension in Pregnancy
Population-based analysis of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy
Lawler, J; Osman, M; Shelton, JA; Yeh, J
Hypertension in Pregnancy, 26(1): 67-76.
International Journal of Epidemiology
Risk of early or severe preeclampsia related to pre-existing conditions
Catov, JM; Ness, RB; Kip, KE; Olsen, J
International Journal of Epidemiology, 36(2): 412-419.
Medical Journal of Australia
Effect of smoking among Indigenous and non-Indigenous mothers on preterm birth and full-term low birthweight
Walters, BNJ
Medical Journal of Australia, 190(7): 400.

Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America
Pregnancy After Bariatric Surgery
Kominiarek, MA
Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America, 37(2): 305-+.
Previous hypertensive disease of pregnancy is associated with alterations of markers of insulin resistance
Girouard, J; Giguere, Y; Moutquin, JM; Forest, JC
Hypertension, 49(5): 1056-1062.
Journal of Rheumatology
Soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase associated with preeclampsia in pregnancy in systemic lupus erythematosus
Qazi, U; Lam, C; Karumanchi, SA; Petri, M
Journal of Rheumatology, 35(4): 631-634.

Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association
Maternal Overweight and Obesity and the Risk of Congenital Anomalies A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Stothard, KJ; Tennant, PWG; Bell, R; Rankin, J
Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association, 301(6): 636-650.

American Journal of Perinatology
Increased Preeclampsia in Mothers Delivering Very Low-Birth-Weight Infants between 1994 and 2006
Paul, DA; Mackley, A; Locke, RG; Ehrenthal, D; Hoffman, M; Kroelinger, C
American Journal of Perinatology, 26(6): 467-472.
Bjog-An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in women with previous pre-eclampsia or small-for-gestational-age offspring
Berends, AL; Zillikens, MC; de Groot, CJM; Rivadeneira, F; Oostra, BA; van Duijn, CM; Steegers, EAP
Bjog-An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 116(3): 442-450.
Paradoxical elevation in adiponectin concentrations in women with preeclampsia
Ramsay, JE; Jamieson, N; Greer, IA; Sattar, N
Hypertension, 42(5): 891-894.
Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism-Physiologie Appliquee Nutrition Et Metabolisme
Exercise in the prevention and treatment of maternal-fetal disease: a review of the literature
Weissgerber, TL; Wolfe, LA; Davies, GAL; Mottola, MF
Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism-Physiologie Appliquee Nutrition Et Metabolisme, 31(6): 661-674.
Bmc Public Health
Effect of Body Mass Index on pregnancy outcomes in nulliparous women delivering singleton babies
Bhattacharya, S; Campbell, DM; Liston, WA; Bhattacharya, S
Bmc Public Health, 7(): -.
ARTN 168
Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Maternal obesity and pregnancy complications: A review
Ramachenderan, J; Bradford, J; Mclean, M
Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 48(3): 228-235.
Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Prepregnancy weight status and the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome
Hauger, MS; Gibbons, L; Vik, T; Belizan, JM
Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 87(9): 953-959.
American Journal of Public Health
Maternal obesity in early pregnancy and risk of spontaneous and elective preterm deliveries: A retrospective cohort study
Smith, GCS; Shah, I; Pell, JP; Crossley, JA; Dobbie, R
American Journal of Public Health, 97(1): 157-162.
American Journal of Epidemiology
The association of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy with weight gain over the subsequent 21 years: Findings from a prospective cohort study
Callaway, LK; Mclntyre, HD; O'Callaghan, M; Williams, GM; Najman, JM; Lawlor, DA
American Journal of Epidemiology, 166(4): 421-428.
Nature Clinical Practice Endocrinology & Metabolism
The metabolic syndrome in women
Bentley-Lewis, R; Koruda, K; Seely, EW
Nature Clinical Practice Endocrinology & Metabolism, 3(): 696-704.
Diabetes Care
Prepregnancy diabetes and risk of placental vascular disease
Becker, T; Vermeulen, MJ; Wyatt, PR; Meier, C; Ray, JG
Diabetes Care, 30(): 2496-2498.
Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism
Obesity: a risk factor for preeclampsia
Walsh, SW
Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism, 18(): 365-370.
Journal of Perinatal Medicine
Adiponectin in severe preeclampsia
Nien, JK; Mazaki-Tovi, S; Romero, R; Erez, O; Kusanovic, JP; Gotsch, F; Pineles, BL; Gomez, R; Edwin, S; Mazor, M; Espinoza, J; Yoon, BH; Hassan, SS
Journal of Perinatal Medicine, 35(6): 503-512.
West Indian Medical Journal
Obstetrical and neonatal outcomes in obese women
Roman, H; Robillard, PY; Hulsey, TC; Laffitte, A; Kouteich, K; Marpeau, L; Barau, G
West Indian Medical Journal, 56(5): 421-426.

Agro Food Industry Hi-Tech
The relationship between pregnancy and obesity: a call for further research
Allison, KC; Sarwer, DB; Wells, SR
Agro Food Industry Hi-Tech, 18(1): 28-31.

Journal of Adolescent Health
Joint Effect of Obesity and Teenage Pregnancy on the Risk of Preeclampsia: A Population-Based Study
Aliyu, MH; Luke, S; Kristensen, S; Alio, AP; Salihu, HM
Journal of Adolescent Health, 46(1): 77-82.
Body mass index has a greater impact on pregnancy outcomes than gestational hyperglycaemia
Ricart, W; Lopez, J; Mozas, J; Pericot, A; Sancho, MA; Gonzalez, N; Balsells, M; Luna, R; Cortazar, A; Navarro, P; Ramirez, O; Flandez, B; Pallardo, LF; Hernandez-Mijas, A; Ampudia, J; Fernandez-Real, J; Corcoy, R
Diabetologia, 48(9): 1736-1742.
Journal of the Society for Gynecologic Investigation
Adiponectin concentrations in maternal serum: Elevated in preeclampsia but unrelated to insulin sensitivity
Kajantie, E; Kaaja, R; Ylikorkala, A; Andersson, S; Laivuori, H
Journal of the Society for Gynecologic Investigation, 12(6): 433-439.
International Journal of Obesity
Burden of disease attributable to obesity and overweight in Korea
Park, JH; Yoon, SJ; Lee, H; Jo, HS; Lee, SI; Kim, Y; Kim, YI; Shin, Y
International Journal of Obesity, 30(): 1661-1669.
International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics
Association between delivery of a small-for-gestational-age neonate and long-term maternal cardiovascular morbidity
Pariente, G; Sheiner, E; Kessous, R; Michael, S; Shoham-Vardi, I
International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 123(1): 68-71.
Plos One
Impact of Obesity on Pregnancy Outcome in Different Ethnic Groups: Calculating Population Attributable Fractions
Oteng-Ntim, E; Kopeika, J; Seed, P; Wandiembe, S; Doyle, P
Plos One, 8(1): -.
ARTN e53749
Obesity Reviews
Maternal adiposity as an independent risk factor for pre-eclampsia: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies
Wang, Z; Wang, P; Liu, H; He, X; Zhang, J; Yan, H; Xu, D; Wang, B
Obesity Reviews, 14(6): 508-521.
Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Pregnancy after bariatric surgery - a review of benefits and risks
Kjaer, MM; Nilas, L
Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 92(3): 264-271.
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Gestational angiogenic biomarker patterns in high risk preeclampsia groups
Maynard, SE; Crawford, SL; Bathgate, S; Yan, J; Robidoux, L; Moore, M; Simas, TAM
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 209(1): -.
ARTN 53.e1
Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Nutrition and Pregnancy
Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, 51(2): 409-418.
PDF (210) | CrossRef
Body Mass Index and Preeclampsia
Bodnar, LM; Kaufman, JS
Epidemiology, 15(2): 252-253.
PDF (263) | CrossRef
Trends in Obesity in Pregnancy
Ray, JG; Nisenbaum, R; Singh, G; Meier, C; Guerin, A; Wyatt, PR; Vermeulen, MJ
Epidemiology, 18(2): 280-281.
PDF (294) | CrossRef
Adult Weight Change, Weight Cycling, and Prepregnancy Obesity in Relation to Risk of Preeclampsia
Frederick, IO; Rudra, CB; Miller, RS; Foster, JC; Williams, MA
Epidemiology, 17(4): 428-434.
PDF (281) | CrossRef
Obstetrics & Gynecology
Greater Maternal Weight and the Ongoing Risk of Neural Tube Defects After Folic Acid Flour Fortification
Ray, JG; Wyatt, PR; Vermeulen, MJ; Meier, C; Cole, DE
Obstetrics & Gynecology, 105(2): 261-265.
PDF (175) | CrossRef
Obstetrics & Gynecology
Recurring Complications in Second Pregnancy
Lykke, JA; Paidas, MJ; Langhoff-Roos, J
Obstetrics & Gynecology, 113(6): 1217-1224.
PDF (232) | CrossRef
Obstetrics & Gynecology
Gestational Weight Gain and Pregnancy Outcomes in Obese Women: How Much Is Enough?
Kiel, DW; Dodson, EA; Artal, R; Boehmer, TK; Leet, TL
Obstetrics & Gynecology, 110(4): 752-758.
PDF (319) | CrossRef
Obstetrics & Gynecology
Hypertensive Disorders in Pregnancy and Subsequently Measured Cardiovascular Risk Factors
Magnussen, EB; Vatten, LJ; Smith, GD; Romundstad, PR
Obstetrics & Gynecology, 114(5): 961-970.
PDF (269) | CrossRef
Back to Top | Article Outline

body mass index; obesity; pregnancy; preeclampsia; toxemia; hypertension; cohort study; systematic overview

© 2003 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

Twitter  Facebook 


Article Tools



Article Level Metrics

Search for Similar Articles
You may search for similar articles that contain these same keywords or you may modify the keyword list to augment your search.