The Role of Epidemiology in Understanding the Health Effects of Helicobacter pylori
Goodman, Karen J.1; Cockburn, Myles2
From the 1School of Public Health, University of Texas–Houston Health Science Center and 2Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles.
Address correspondence to: Karen J. Goodman, School of Public Health, University of Texas–Houston Health Science Center, P.O. Box 20186, Houston, TX 77225.
Submitted December 29, 1999; final version accepted August 9, 2000.
Helicobacter pylori infects one-half or more of the world population and causes chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and probably gastric cancer as well. The public-health impact of this infection is far from trivial. Chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer disease are common across populations. Gastric cancer rates have declined during this century, but this cancer remains second among causes of cancer deaths worldwide. Much has been learned about biological and clinical aspects of H. pylori, but key epidemiologic questions have not been answered. How infection results in diverse diseases, the precise modes of transmission, and a comprehensive solution to H. pylori as a public-health problem remain elusive. In this paper, we highlight methodologic challenges and outline an agenda for future research. Challenges include improving validation of detection methods and considering the limitations of these methods when interpreting epidemiologic data. The role of cofactors in H. pylori-induced diseases requires extensive exploration. Many intriguing areas of H. pylori research require the skills of epidemiologists. The discovery of an infectious etiology of common chronic diseases presents a promising opportunity for improving public health.
The incidental discovery in 1983 1,2 of a bacterium that infects one-half or more of the world population 3 proved to have profound public-health implications. 4,5 We know now that Helicobacter pylori causes chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and probably gastric cancer as well. 6,7 Chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer disease are common, particularly among the elderly and low-income groups. 8–10 Gastric cancer remains second among causes of cancer deaths worldwide 11 despite declining occurrence during this century. 10 In the United States, annual direct costs of H. pylori-associated diseases exceed five billion dollars. 12 Much has been learned about biological and clinical aspects of H. pylori, but key epidemiologic questions have not been answered. Published reviews have effectively summarized the epidemiologic literature. 13–17 Our aim is to highlight methodologic challenges and outline an agenda for future research. In this way, we hope to stimulate interest in the many intriguing areas of H. pylori research that require the skills of epidemiologists.
A major challenge to epidemiologic studies of H. pylori comes from difficulty in detecting cases at onset. 18 Acute infection has been described in a few instances of experimental and accidental inoculation. 19,20 In these cases, H. pylori colonization produced inflammation of the gastric mucosa accompanied by a broad spectrum of dyspeptic symptoms. Two experimental inoculations led to distinct outcomes. 20 The first resulted in symptomatic acute gastritis with detectable H. pylori on histologic examination of biopsies; the infection appeared to be eliminated by host defenses before 14 days, when a 1-week course of tinidazole was taken 19; no short- or long-term antibody response was detected. 20 The second voluntary inoculation resulted in a persistent infection, which was resistant to a series of monodrug therapies. 20
In the case of experimentally acquired persistent infection, immunoglobulin (Ig) M levels rose and fell within weeks after acute infection; IgG became detectable after normalization of IgM. 14 Several studies have followed IgG levels after successful anti-H. pylori therapy; in general, titers decline after elimination of H. pylori, often reaching seronegative levels within a year or two. 21–24 The immune response to H. pylori may not confer immunity, given that previously infected individuals are susceptible to reinfection. 25 Infection with one strain may not prevent infection by others, because coinfection with multiple strains is common. 26
Because spontaneous elimination is rarely observed when adults with prevalent infection are followed over time, it has been assumed that infection generally persists once acquired. 13,17 This assumption, however, contradicts evidence that H. pylori may result in either brief, self-limiting infection or persistent infection. 19,27 In fact, because infection is not generally detected at onset, the proportion of acute infections that persist is not known. Furthermore, cases of infection detected in epidemiologic studies will tend to be persistent ones, particularly when measurement of antibodies is used for detection. Thus, most of what we know about the epidemiology of H. pylori infection relates to persistent infection; little is known about acute infection.
Detection of H. pylori
H. pylori detection methods include invasive procedures, which require gastric biopsy, and noninvasive tests, which measure indicators of infection and are suited to epidemiologic studies. 28 The method used most widely in epidemiologic research to date is the enzyme immunoassay to detect IgG antibodies. Therefore, most evidence of H. pylori occurrence comes from seroprevalence studies. The interpretation of serostatus is problematic, because elevated antibody levels may reflect either an active or an eradicated infection, whereas undetectable antibody levels can occur in someone who was previously infected, has recently become infected, or has never been infected. Beyond the ambiguous relation between serostatus and infection status, the accuracy of specific serologic assays in measuring antibody levels may vary across populations. 29 In addition, serology has limited usefulness in very young children, 30 who may be slow to mount a detectable antibody response 31 and, in the case of infants, may have maternal antibodies. 32
The noninvasive urea breath test detects H. pylori urease activity in the stomach and thus accurately detects active infection 33; however, limited validation has been conducted in children under 10 years of age. It is not known whether the breath test detects acute and persistent infection equally well. Breath tests have not been used extensively in epidemiologic research, because they cost more than serologic tests, although they have proven feasible in population-based studies. 34–38 A stool antigen test has been introduced, 39,40 but its usefulness in epidemiologic research has not yet been established. Validating H. pylori detection methods in populations of epidemiologic interest is problematic, because there is no gold standard diagnostic method 25 that can be used in groups of healthy individuals.
H. pylori Prevalence
Numerous studies reveal wide ranges in prevalence around the world 14,41 and link prevalent infection to poor socioeconomic conditions and residential overcrowding. 14 Much evidence suggests that persistent infections are most often acquired in childhood. 14 To date, most studies that have identified risk factors for infection have been cross-sectional; in general, reports from these studies overlook the inability of this design to differentiate factors that influence acquisition of infection from those that influence persistence. Thus, we do not know whether identified H. pylori “risk factors” predict susceptibility to acute infection, persistent infection, or both.
H. pylori Incidence
Knowledge of H. pylori incidence must be inferred from studies that follow individuals over time and repeatedly measure prevalent infection. 18 Numerous studies have examined recurrence after confirmed eradication of infection. 42 Inferring risk of reinfection from such studies is problematic, because it is difficult to determine whether recurrence represents reinfection or recrudescence of an infection that was suppressed to undetectable levels but was not cured. 43 Identification of the same strain before and after treatment has been offered as evidence of recrudescence, 42 given the diversity of H. pylori strains in series of unrelated patients. 42,44 But identical strains have been observed in some family members, 45,46 and isolation of a new strain may represent a preexisting coinfection.
Historical cohort studies using stored sera from adults have reported seroconversion rates from 0.3% to 1.0% per year and seroreversion rates from 1.2% to 1.6% per year. 47–50 These studies examined infection status at two or three time points over intervals of many years. The low rates of change observed could be due entirely to test error. 3 Therefore, conclusions regarding the relative frequency of conversion and reversion are problematic. Also, such studies may miss infections that do not result in persistent detectable antibodies, thus underestimating incidence rates.
Cohort studies covering diverse age ranges have followed H. pylori infection in healthy children, some at several time points. 51 These studies estimate a wide range of incidence rates, from 0.1% per year to 13% per month, with higher rates occurring in populations of low socioeconomic status. In some demographic subgroups, frequent loss of infection occurred. As with the adult studies, the contribution of test error to observed changes in status has not been evaluated. In addition, information on variations in incidence over defined childhood age intervals is sparse.
The means by which H. pylori spreads in populations is not fully clear. 14 The organism is not easily isolated from extragastric secretions, so ambiguity persists regarding the usual portals of exit. 15 Perinatal transmission from mother to infant does not appear to occur, 32,52 and blood-borne transmission is implausible. Iatrogenic transmission by gastroenterologic procedures has been documented, 14 but other specific modes of transmission have been neither confirmed nor ruled out. Direct person-to-person transmission is probable, but the relative importance of fecal-oral, oral-oral, and what has been called gastric-oral 53 (through vomitus) routes is not apparent. Few investigations have focused on host conditions that may facilitate transmission. For example, a recent experimental study isolated H. pylori from induced vomitus and cathartic stools, suggesting that acute gastrointestinal illness may play a role in bacterial shedding. 53
The major disease pathways resulting from H. pylori infection have been described, 54 but little is known about what determines one pathway or another. 55 Some evidence suggests that characteristics of bacterial 56–60 or host 61 genetics may influence the disease outcome. Data on cofactors in ulcer or cancer etiology are limited, however.
The causal relation between H. pylori and peptic ulcer was established by a 1994 consensus panel convened by the National Institutes of Health. 6 It has been estimated that 10–20% of H. pylori- infected persons will develop a peptic ulcer in their lifetime. 62 Host factors including smoking, heavy alcohol use, stress, poor sleep and eating habits, hard physical labor, and genetic susceptibility may influence ulcer risk, 62,63 but it is not clear whether any of these factors modifies the risk of peptic ulcer given H. pylori infection.
Before the relation between H. pylori and gastric cancer was discovered, Correa 64 synthesized epidemiologic and biomedical evidence into a model that presented gastric carcinoma as the result of a multistage degenerative process beginning with chronic gastritis. After being identified as a cause of chronic gastritis, H. pylori fit coherently in this model. 65 Evidence from epidemiologic studies, however, has been inconsistent. 66 Many standard case-control studies have investigated the H. pylori-gastric carcinoma association, 67 but this design is believed to underestimate the relative risk, because precancerous changes promote loss of H. pylori colonization. 68 Nested case-control studies conducted from cohorts with stored sera have been more compelling, 67 although the precancerous process may eliminate the infection some years before cancer diagnosis, 68 so the degree of misclassification of antecedent infection status in cancer cases depends on the time interval between serum collection and diagnosis. Combined data from the first three such nested studies revealed an increase in the estimated odds ratio for H. pylori seropositivity and subsequent gastric carcinoma from 2.1, when serum was collected 0–4 years before cancer diagnosis, to 4.4 and 8.7 when serum was collected 10–14 and 15 or more years before diagnosis, respectively. 68 Recent meta-analyses have reported summary relative risk estimates from nested studies of 2.2 69 and 2.5. 67 These estimates overlook documented sources of variation in effect, including age and stage at diagnosis, anatomic subsite, follow-up interval, and both the gastric cancer incidence rates and the prevalence of H. pylori infection in the local population. 66,68,69
Most studies of H. pylori and gastric cancer have not adjusted adequately for gastric cancer risk factors, 66,67 many of which may similarly influence H. pylori infection 14,70–72; thus, the relative risk estimates for H. pylori and gastric cancer may be biased upward. The extent to which upward bias from confounding balances downward bias from differential misclassification due to loss of H. pylori colonization in cancer cases is not clear. Nondifferential errors from antibody tests most likely contribute to underestimation of the effect.
A rare gastric cancer subtype, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, arises in the presence of H. pylori- induced gastritis. 73 Elimination of H. pylori infection results in complete remission of most low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas. 73 Evidence from intervention studies is not yet available for gastric carcinoma. Randomized intervention trials in Europe, Latin America, China, and Japan aim to determine whether H. pylori elimination prevents carcinoma or progression of precancerous lesions. 74 The first of these trials completed follow-up in 1998, and findings are beginning to emerge. 75 It remains to be seen whether the design of these trials in terms of size, timing of follow-up, and effectiveness of interventions 76,77 will lead to definitive answers.
H. pylori does not appear to increase the risk of adenocarcinoma of either the esophagus 78 or the gastric cardia, 69 although the role of the infection in gastroesophageal disease remains unclear. 79,80 In cross-sectional studies, H. pylori is not related to increased gastroesophageal reflux disease 79,80; however, an increased risk of reflux disease has been observed in duodenal ulcer patients after eradication of H. pylori infection, 79 leading to the hypothesis that the bacteria protect against reflux disease. 81 Alternately, confounding influences related to ulcer healing have been proposed to explain the paradox. 79,80
Studies have examined H. pylori infection in relation to other diseases, 82–85 most notably coronary heart disease, 86 but current evidence is inconclusive.
Obstacles to Prevention
Table 1 summarizes obstacles to the development of control measures for H. pylori infection. The means of interrupting transmission are unclear, owing to inadequate knowledge of the natural history, modes of transmission, and host susceptibility factors. Cure of H. pylori infection requires compliance with burdensome multidrug regimens that are least effective where infection is most prevalent, owing to antibiotic resistance and other complicating factors. 25,87 The potential for developing an effective vaccine remains unknown. Stimulated immunity has been achieved in mouse models developed for vaccine research, 88 but human vaccine trials have not yet been successful. 28
On the other hand, optimal anti-H. pylori therapies work effectively for most adults in developed countries, 25 where the probability of reacquiring a persistent infection is low 18; the same may apply in some developing country settings. Assuming a causal association, cost-effectiveness analysis based on U.S. data suggests that screening and treating older adults may be a reasonable strategy for gastric cancer prevention, with the added benefit of preventing other H. pylori-associated diseases. 89 At the same time, the suggestion that H. pylori eradication may increase the occurrence of gastroesophageal diseases has raised cautions regarding the benefits of H. pylori eradication as a disease-prevention strategy. 81 Intervention trials are needed to evaluate the effectiveness and adverse consequences of such a strategy.
The Role of Epidemiology
In an editorial written on the occasion of the 1994 National Institutes of Health consensus, 6 Peura and Graham state, “It is amazing that this major problem of mankind was largely defined and solved by clinical gastroenterologists essentially without support from the biomedical research establishment. Even now, it is apparent that we are not dealing with a mystery such as the cause of pancreatic cancer, but with an infection that can be cured or prevented. It is time that our biomedical research establishment tempers its traditional focus on molecular mechanisms of disease...Increased emphasis must be placed on improving H. pylori therapy, understanding its mode of transmission, searching for weak links in the transmission chain, and asking whether vaccination is a practical means of preventing infection. Childhood appears to be the time of greatest risk of acquiring infection, and yet no studies are being done to examine why this is or how to prevent this from happening.”90,p.1139
Peura and Graham 90 delineated research questions that require the expertise of epidemiologists; however, little progress has been made in addressing these questions since 1994. Current obstacles to H. pylori prevention present a challenge to epidemiologists and other disease control experts. Furthermore, the etiologic role of H. pylori infection in associated diseases remains poorly understood. Working with scientists from other disciplines, epidemiologists can help identify determinants of H. pylori disease pathways and strategies for prevention.
We propose a research agenda for H. pylori epidemiology (Table 2). Epidemiologists can help generate the knowledge required to develop prevention strategies for infection and subsequent disease. A critical aim is to understand better how infection induces diverse diseases. Methodologic challenges stem largely from difficulties in the measurement of H. pylori status. These challenges require improved validation of detection methods across demographic groups as well as consideration of the limitations of detection methods when interpreting epidemiologic data. Finally, the role of cofactors in H. pylori-induced diseases requires extensive exploration. The discovery of an infectious etiology of common chronic digestive diseases presents a promising opportunity for improving public health. The methodologic challenges inherent in H. pylori research warrant increased attention from epidemiologists.
We thank Lori Fischbach, Elaine Symanski and Carl V. Phillips for comments on the manuscript.
1. Warren JR. Unidentified curved bacilli on gastric epithelium in active chronic gastritis. Lancet 1983; 1: 1273.
2. Marshall BJ. Unidentified curved bacilli on gastric epithelium in active chronic gastritis. Lancet 1983; 1: 1273–1275.
3. Cockburn M, Cox B. The effect of measurement error in the determination of Helicobacter pylori
prevalence. Epidemiology 1997; 8: 205–209.
4. Graham DY. Public health issues relating to Helicobacter pylori
infection and global eradication. In: Graham DY, Genta RM, Dixon MF, eds. Gastritis. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 1999:241–246.
5. Parsonnet J. Helicobacter pylori
: the size of the problem. Gut 1998; 43: 6S–9S.
6. NIH Consensus Conference. Helicobacter pylori
in peptic ulcer disease: NIH Consensus Development Panel on Helicobacter pylori
in Peptic Ulcer Disease. JAMA 1994;272:65–69.
7. International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Cancer Risks to Humans. vol. 61. Schistosomes, Liver Flukes and Helicobacter pylori
. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1994.
8. National Center for Health Statistics. Current estimates from the National Health Interview Survey, 1996. Series 10, No. 200. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics, 1999.
9. Bernersen B, Johnsen R, Straume B, Burhol PG, Jenssen TG, Stakkevold PA. Towards a true prevalence of peptic ulcer: the Sørreisa gastrointestinal disorder study. Gut 1990; 31: 989–992.
10. Nomura A. Stomach cancer. In: Schottenfeld D, Fraumeni JF, eds. Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996; 707–724.
11. Pisani P, Parkin DM, Bray F, Ferlay J. Estimates of the worldwide mortality from 25 cancers in 1990. Int J Cancer 1999; 83: 18–29.
12. Sonnenberg A, Everhart JE. The economic cost of gastritis. In: Graham DY, Genta RM, Dixon MF, eds. Gastritis. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1999; 235–246.
13. Taylor DN, Blaser MJ. The epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori
infection. Epidemiol Rev 1991; 13: 42–59.
14. Goodman KJ, Correa P. The transmission of Helicobacter pylori
: a critical review of the evidence. Int J Epidemiol 1995; 24: 875–887.
15. Parsonnet J. Helicobacter pylori. Infect Dis Clin North Am 1998; 12: 185–197.
16. Feldman RA, Eccersley AJP, Hardie JM. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori
: acquisition, transmission, population prevalence and disease-to-infection ratio. Br Med Bull 1998; 54: 39–53.
17. Mitchell HM. The epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori
. In: Westblom TU, Czinn SJ, Nedrud JG, eds. Gastroduodenal Disease and Helicobacter pylori
: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Treatment. Berlin: Springer, 1999; 11–30.
18. Parsonnet J. The incidence of Helicobacter pylori
infection. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1995; 9 (suppl 2): 45–52.
19. Marshall BJ, Armstrong JA, McGechie DB, Glancy RJ. Attempt to fulfill Koch’s postulates for pyloric campylobacter. Med J Aust 1985; 142: 436–439.
20. Morris A, Nicholson G. Experimental and accidental C. pylori infection of humans. In: Blaser MJ, ed. Campylobacter pylori
in Gastritis and Peptic Ulcer Disease. New York: Igaku-Shoin, 1989;61–72.
21. Kosunen TU. Antibody titres in Helicobacter pylori
infection: implications in the follow-up of antimicrobial therapy. Ann Med 1995; 27: 605–607.
22. Fradkin A, Yahav Y, Diver-Haber A, Weisselberg B, Jonas A. The value of anti-Helicobacter pylori
IgG antibodies in establishing eradication of infection in children. Isr J Med Sci 1997; 33: 87–92.
23. Cutler AF, Prasad VM. Long-term follow-up of Helicobacter pylori
serology after successful eradication. Am J Gastroenterol 1996; 91: 85–88.
24. Wang WM, Chen CY, Jan CM, Chen LT, Perng DS, Lin SR, Liu CS. Long-term follow-up and serological study after triple therapy of Helicobacter pylori
-associated duodenal ulcer. Am J Gastroenterol 1994; 89: 1793–1796.
25. Genta RM, Graham DY. Diagnosis and treatment of Helicobacter pylori
infection. In: Graham DY, Genta RM, Dixon MF, eds. Gastritis. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1999; 189–201.
26. Hazell SL. Mixed gastric infections and infection with other Helicobacter
species. In: Hunt RH, Tytgat GNJ, eds. Helicobacter pylori
: Basic Mechanisms to Clinical Cure 1996. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1996; 1–9.
27. Rauws EAJ, Tytgat GNJ. Natural history of C. pylori
infection. In: Blaser MJ, ed. Campylobacter pylori
in Gastritis and Peptic Ulcer Disease. New York: Igaku-Shoin 1989:187–193.
28. Axon A, Moayyedi P, Sahay P. Whom, how and when to test for Helicobacter pylori
infection. In: Hunt RH, Tytgat GNJ, eds. Helicobacter pylori
: Basic Mechanisms to Clinical Cure 1996. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1996; 269–285.
29. Bodhidatta L, Hoge CW, Churnratanakul S, Nirdnoy W, Sampathanukul P, Tungtaem C, Raktham S, Smith CD, Echeverria P. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori
infection in a developing country: comparison of two ELISAs and a seroprevalence study. J Infect Dis 1993; 168: 1549–1553.
30. Khanna B, Cutler A, Israel NR, Perry M, Lastovica A, Fields PI, Gold BD. Use caution with serologic testing for Helicobacter pylori
infection in children. J Infect Dis 1998; 178: 460–465.
31. Thomas JE, Dale A, Harding M, Coward WA, Cole TJ, Weaver LT. Helicobacter pylori
colonization in early life. Pediatr Res 1999; 45: 218–223.
32. Blecker U, Lanciers S, Keppens E, Vandenplas Y. Evolution of Helicobacter pylori
positivity in infants born from positive mothers. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1994; 19: 87–90.
33. Graham DY, Klein PD. What you should know about the methods, problems, interpretations, and uses of urea breath tests. Am J Gastroenterol 1991; 86: 1118–1122.
34. Thomas JE, Dale A, Harding M, Coward WA, Cole TJ, Sullivan PB, Campbell DI, Warren BF, Weaver LT. Interpreting the 13
C-urea breath test among a large population of young children from a developing country. Pediatr Res 1999; 46: 147–151.
35. Rothenbacher D, Bode G, Berg G, Gommel R, Gonser T, Adler G, Brenner H. Prevalence and determinants of Helicobacter pylori
infection in preschool children: a population-based study from Germany. Int J Epidemiol 1998; 27: 135–141.
36. Goodman KJ, Correa P, Tengana Aux HJ, Ramírez H, DeLany JP, Guerrero Pepinosa O, López Quinones M, Collazos Parra T. Helicobacter pylori
infection in the Colombian Andes: a population-based study of transmission pathways. Am J Epidemiol 1996;144:290–299.
37. Mahalanabis D, Rahman MM, Sarker SA, Bardhan PK, Hildebrand P, Beglinger C, Gyr K. Helicobacter pylori
infection in the young in Bangladesh: prevalence, socioeconomic and nutritional aspects. Int J Epidemiol 1996; 25: 894–898.
38. Klein PD, Gilman RH, León-Barua R, Diaz F, Smith EO, Graham DY. The epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori
in Peruvian children between 6 and 30 months of age. Am J Gastroenterol 1994; 89: 2196–2200.
39. Vaira D, Malfertheiner P, Megraud F, Axon A, Deltenre M, Hirschl AM, Gasbarrini G, O’Morain C, Pajares Garcia JM, Quina M, Tytgat GNJ. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori
infection with a new non-invasive antigen-based assay. Lancet 1999;354:30–33.
40. Oderda G, Rapa A, Ronchi B, Lerro P, Pastore M, Staiano A, de Angelis GL, Strisciuglio P. Detection of Helicobacter pylori
in stool specimens by non-invasive antigen enzyme immunoassay in children: multicenter Italian study. BMJ 2000; 320: 347–348.
41. Pounder RE, Ng D. The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori
infection in different countries. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1995; 9 (suppl 2): 33–39.
42. Xia HX, Talley NJ, Keane CT, O’Morain CA. Recurrence of Helicobacter pylori
infection after successful eradication: nature and possible causes. Dig Dis Sci 1997; 42: 1821–1834.
43. Graham DY, Genta RM. Reinfection with H. pylori. In: Hunt RH, Tytgat GNJ, eds. Helicobacter pylori: Basic Mechanisms to Clinical Cure. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1994;113–120.
44. Megraud F. H. pylori species heterogeneity. In: Hunt RH, Tytgat GNJ, eds. Helicobacter pylori: Basic Mechanisms to Clinical Cure. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1994;28–40.
45. Schütze K, Hentschel E, Dragosics B, Hirschl AM. Helicobacter pylori
reinfection with identical organisms: transmission by the patients’ spouses. Gut 1995; 36: 831–833.
46. Wang JT, Sheu JC, Lin JT, Wang TH, Wu MS. Direct DNA amplification and restriction pattern analysis of Helicobacter pylori
in patients with duodenal ulcer and their families. J Infect Dis 1993; 168: 1544–1548.
47. Cullen DJE, Collins BJ, Christiansen KJ, Epis J, Warren JR, Surveyor I, Cullen KJ. When is Helicobacter pylori
infection acquired? Gut 1993; 34: 1681–1682.
48. Veldhuyzen van Zanten SJO, Pollak PT, Best LM, Bezanson GS, Marrie T. Increasing prevalence of Helicobacter pylori
infection with age: continuous risk of infection in adults rather than cohort effect. J Infect Dis 1994; 169: 434–437.
49. Parsonnet J, Blaser MJ, Pérez-Pérez GI, Hargrett-Bean N, Tauxe RV. Symptoms and risk factors of Helicobacter pylori
infection in a cohort of epidemiologists. Gastroenterology 1992; 102: 41–46.
50. Kumagai T, Malaty HM, Graham DY, Hosogaya S, Misawa K, Furihata K, Ota H, Sei C, Tanaka E, Akamatsu T, Shimuzu T, Kiyosawa K, Katsuyama T. Acquisition vs
loss of Helicobacter pylori
infection in Japan: results from an 8-year birth cohort study. J Infect Dis 1998; 178: 717–721.
51. Torres J, Pérez-Pérez G, Goodman KJ, Atherton J, Gold BD, Harris PR, Madrazo A, Guarner J, Muñoz O. A comprehensive review of the natural history of the infection by Helicobacter pylori
in children. Arch Med Res (in press).
52. Gold B, Khanna B, Huang LM, Lee CY, Banatvala N. Helicobacter pylori
acquisition in infancy after decline of maternal passive immunity. Pediatr Res 1997; 41: 641–646.
53. Parsonnet J, Shmuely H, Haggerty T. Fecal and oral shedding of Helicobacter pylori
from healthy infected adults. JAMA 1999; 282: 2240–2245.
54. Correa P. Helicobacter pylori
and gastric carcinogenesis. Am J Surg Pathol 1995; 19: S37–S43.
55. Parsonnet J. Helicobacter pylori
in the stomach: a paradox unmasked. N Engl J Med 1996; 335: 278–280.
56. Blaser MJ. Intrastrain differences in Helicobacter pylori
: a key question in mucosal damage? Ann Med 1995; 27: 559–563.
57. Blaser MJ, Perez-Perez GI, Kleanthous H, Cover TL, Peek RM, Chyou PH, Stemmerman GN, Nomura A. Infection with Helicobacter pylori
strains possessing cagA is associated with an increased risk of developing adenocarcinoma of the stomach. Cancer Res 1995; 55: 2111–2115.
58. Crabtree JE, Covacci A, Farmery SM, Xiang Z, Tompkins DS, Perry S, Lindley IJ, Rappuoli R. Helicobacter pylori
induced interleukin-8 expression in gastric epithelial cells is associated with CagA positive phenotype. J Clin Pathol 1995; 48: 41–45.
59. Parsonnet J, Friedman GD, Orentreich N, Vogelman H. Risk for gastric cancer in people with CagA positive or CagA negative Helicobacter pylori
infection. Gut 1997; 40: 297–301.
60. Witherell HL, Hansen S, Jellum E, Orentreich N, Vogelman JH, Parsonnet J. Risk for gastric lymphoma in persons with CagA+ and CagA−Helicobacter pylori
infection. J Infect Dis 1997; 176: 1641–1644.
61. El-Omar EM, Carrington M, Chow WH, McColl KEL, Bream JH, Young HA, Herrera J, Lissowska J, Yuan CC, Rothman N, Lanyon G, Martin M, Fraumeni JF Jr, Rabkin CS. Interleukin-1 polymorphisms associated with increased risk of gastric cancer. Nature 2000; 404: 398–402.
62. Kuipers EJ, Thijs JC, Festen HPM. The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori
in peptic ulcer disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1995; 9 (Suppl. 2): 59–69.
63. Levenstein S, Kaplan G. Socioeconomic status and ulcer: a prospective study of contributory risk factors. J Clin Gastroenterol 1998; 26: 14–17.
64. Correa P. A human model of gastric carcinogenesis. Cancer Res 1988; 48: 3554–3560.
65. Correa P. Human gastric carcinogenesis: a multistep and multifactorial process: first American Cancer Society award lecture on cancer epidemiology and prevention. Cancer Res 1992; 52: 6735–6740.
66. Muñoz N, Franceschi S. Epidemiology of gastric cancer and perspectives for prevention. Salud Pública Méx 1997; 39: 318–330.
67. Danesh J. Helicobacter pylori
infection and gastric cancer: systematic review of the epidemiological studies. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1999; 13: 851–856.
68. Forman D, Webb P, Parsonnet J. H. pylori and gastric cancer. Lancet 1994; 343: 243–244.
69. Huang JQ, Sridhar S, Chen Y, Hunt RH. Meta-analysis of the relationship between Helicobacter pylori
seropositivity and gastric cancer. Gastroenterology 1998; 114: 1169–1179.
70. Ruiz B, Rood JC, Fontham ETH, Malcom GT, Hunter FM, Sobhan M, Johnson WD, Correa P. Vitamin C concentration in gastric juice before and after anti-Helicobacter pylori
treatment. Am J Gastroenterol 1994; 89: 533–539.
71. Fontham ETH, Ruiz B, Pérez A, Hunter F, Correa P. Determinants of Helicobacter pylori
infection and chronic gastritis. Am J Gastroenterol 1995; 90: 1094–1104.
72. Goodman KJ, Correa P, Tengana Aux HJ, DeLany JP, Collazos T. Nutritional factors and Helicobacter pylori
infection in Colombian children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1997; 25: 507–515.
73. Stolte M, Morgner A, Meining A, Thiede C, Wündischt T, Bayerdörffer E, Neubauer A. Early and long-term results of Helicobacter pylori
cure of MALT lymphoma: what are the pitfalls? In: Hunt RH, Tytgat GNJ, eds. Helicobacter pylori
: Basic Mechanisms to Clinical Cure 1998. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998; 373–380.
74. Forman D. Lessons from ongoing intervention studies. In: Hunt RH, Tytgat GNJ, eds. Helicobacter pylori
: Basic Mechanisms to Clinical Cure 1998. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998; 354–361.
75. Gong C, Mera R, Bravo JC, Ruiz B, Diaz-Escamilla R, Fontham ET, Correa P, Hunt JD. KRAS mutations predict progression of preneoplastic gastric lesions. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1999; 8: 167–171.
76. Buiatti E, Muñoz N, Vivas J, Cano E, Peraza S, Carillo E, Castro D, Sánchez V, Andrade O, Benz M, de Sanjosé S, Oliver W. Difficulty in eradicating Helicobacter pylori
in a population at high risk for stomach cancer in Venezuela. Cancer Causes Control 1994;5:249–254.
77. Mera R, Realpe JL, Bravo LE, DeLany JP, Correa P. Eradication of Helicobacter pylori
infection with proton pump-based triple therapy in patients in whom bismuth-based triple therapy failed. J Clin Gastroenterol 1999; 29: 51–55.
78. Pera M. Epidemiology of esophageal cancer, especially adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction. Recent Results Cancer Res 2000; 155: 1–14.
79. McNamara D, O’Morain C. Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and Helicobacter pylori
: an intricate relation. Gut 1999; 45 (suppl 1): 113–117.
80. Spechler SJ. Does Helicobacter pylori
infection contribute to gastroesophageal reflux disease? Yale J Biol Med 1998; 71: 143–148.
81. Blaser MJ. Hypothesis: the changing relationships of Helicobacter pylori
and humans: implications for health and disease. J Infect Dis 1999; 179: 1523–1530.
82. Konturek SJ, Konturek PC, Pieniazek P, Bielanski W. Role of Helicobacter pylori
infection in extragastroduodenal disorders: introductory remarks. J Physiol Pharmacol 1999; 50: 683–694.
83. Ekstrom P. Non-gastric effects of H. pylori infection: a literature review with respect to non gastric diseases which might be associated with H. pylori
infection. Eur J Surg Suppl 1998; 582: 32–34.
84. Pattison CP, Marshall BJ. Proposed link between Helicobacter pylori
and sudden infant death syndrome. Med Hypotheses 1997; 49: 365–369.
85. Grandis JR, Pérez-Pérez GI, Yu VL, Johnson JT, Blaser MJ. Lack of serologic evidence for Helicobacter pylori
infection in head and neck cancer. Head Neck 1997; 19: 216–218.
86. Danesh J. Helicobacter pylori
infection and coronary heart disease: a critical look. In: Hunt RH, Tytgat GNJ, eds. Helicobacter pylori
: Basic Mechanisms to Clinical Cure 1998. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998; 267–273.
87. Fischbach LA, Goodman KJ. Predictors of Helicobacter pylori
treatment success: a review of the literature. Am J Epidemiol 1999; 149: S12.
88. Marchetti M, Arico B, Burroni D, Figura N, Rappouli R, Ghiara P. Development of a mouse model of Helicobacter pylori
infection that mimics human disease. Science 1995; 267: 1655–1658.
89. Parsonnet J, Harris RA, Hack HM, Owens DK. Modeling cost-effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori
screening to prevent gastric cancer: a mandate for clinical trials. Lancet 1996; 348: 150–154.
90. Peura DA, Graham DY. Helicobacter pylori
: consensus reached: peptic ulcer is on the way to becoming an historic disease. Am J Gastroenterol 1994; 89: 1137–1139.
This article has been cited 29 time(s).
Psychotherapy and PsychosomaticsPeptic ulcer disease and neuroticism in the United States adult populationPsychotherapy and Psychosomatics
Journal of InfectionSerological evidence of Helicobacter pylori infection in UK South Asian and European populations: Implications for gastric cancer and coronary heart diseaseJournal of Infection
Journal of GastroenterologyClinical prevention of gastric cancer by Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy: a systematic reviewJournal of Gastroenterology
Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology
Helicobacter pylori infection in Canadian and related Arctic Aboriginal populations
Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology, 22(3):
Indian Journal of Medical Research
Helicobacter pylori vaccine: mucosal adjuvant & delivery systems
Indian Journal of Medical Research, 130(2):
Statistical model of the interactions between Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer development
OncogeneInactivation of ELF/TGF-beta signaling in human gastrointestinal cancerOncogene
Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine
Genotypic characterization of Helicobacter pylori cagA and vacA from biopsy specimens of patients with gastroduodenal diseases
Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine, 73(3):
Paediatric and Perinatal EpidemiologyCorrespondence between Helicobacter pylori antibodies and urea breath test results in a US-Mexico birth cohortPaediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Journal of Chromatography B-Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life SciencesIntegrated microfluidic magnetic immunosensor for quantification of human serum IgG antibodies to Helicobacter pyloriJournal of Chromatography B-Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Scandinavian Journal of GastroenterologyClinical usefulness of virulence factors of Helicobacter pylori as predictors of the outcomes of infection. What is the evidence?Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
Biochemical and Biophysical Research CommunicationsTGF-beta signaling pathway inactivation and cell cycle deregulation in the development of gastric cancer: Role of the beta-spectrin, ELFBiochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Frontiers in BioscienceHelicobacter Pylori associated global gastric cancer burdenFrontiers in Bioscience
World Journal of Gastroenterology
Causal role of Helicobacter pylori infection and eradication therapy in gastric carcinogenesis
World Journal of Gastroenterology, 12(1):
The Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori and Public Health Implications
PediatricsExposure to Antibiotics in a United States-Mexico Border Birth CohortPediatrics
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug SafetyAntibiotics taken for other illnesses and spontaneous clearance of Helicobacter pylori infection in childrenPharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and HygienePrevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among asymptomatic healthy blood donors in Northern Peninsular MalaysiaTransactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Water ResearchUse of fluorescent in situ hybridization to evidence the presence of Helicobacter pylori in waterWater Research
Food ControlThe significance of Helicobacter pylori in water, food and environmental samplesFood Control
Journal of Cellular PhysiologyHelicobacter pylori heat shock protein B (HspB) localizes in vivo in the gastric mucosa and MALT lymphomaJournal of Cellular Physiology
Ethnicity & Disease
Establishment of an binational cohort to Helicobacter pylori infection in children
Ethnicity & Disease, 13(3):
Singapore Medical Journal
Prevalence of active Helicobacter pylori infection among patients referred for endoscopy in Brunei Darussalam
Singapore Medical Journal, 49(1):
Acta PaediatricaA randomized, open trial evaluating the effect of Saccharomyces boulardii on the eradication rate of Helicobacter pylori infection in childrenActa Paediatrica
Expert Review of Anticancer TherapyHelicobacter pylori eradication for gastric cancer preventionExpert Review of Anticancer Therapy
International Journal of EpidemiologyDynamics of Helicobacter pylori infection in a US-Mexico cohort during the first two years of lifeInternational Journal of Epidemiology
Jundishapur Journal of MicrobiologyPrevalence of Helicobacter pylori Infection evaluated by Stool antigen test in Khuzestan Province since September to October 2009, south-west of Iran: a population based studyJundishapur Journal of Microbiology
Journal of Clinical GastroenterologyInsights in Gastric Carcinogenesis From Helicobacter pylori InfectionJournal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Anti-Cancer DrugsDocetaxel in advanced gastric cancerAnti-Cancer Drugs
© 2001 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.