If you have access to this article through your institution,
you can view this article in
Air Pollution During Pregnancy and Childhood Cognitive and Psychomotor Development: Six European Birth Cohorts
Guxens, Mònicaa,b,c; Garcia-Esteban, Raquela,b,c; Giorgis-Allemand, Lised,e; Forns, Joana,b,c; Badaloni, Chiaraf; Ballester, Ferranc,g,h; Beelen, Robi; Cesaroni, Giuliaf; Chatzi, Ledaj; de Agostini, Mariak,l; de Nazelle, Audreya,b,c,m; Eeftens, Marloesi; Fernandez, Mariana F.c,n,o; Fernández-Somoano, Anac,p; Forastiere, Francescof; Gehring, Ulrikei; Ghassabian, Akhgarq,r; Heude, Barbarak,l; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.r,s; Klümper, Claudiat; Kogevinas, Manolisa,b,c,u; Krämer, Ursulat; Larroque, Béatricev,w; Lertxundi, Aitanax,y; Lertxuni, Nereay,z; Murcia, Marioc,h; Navel, Vladislavaa; Nieuwenhuijsen, Marka,b,c; Porta, Danielaf; Ramos, Rosac,o; Roumeliotaki, Theanoj; Slama, Rémyd,e; Sørensen, Mettebb; Stephanou, Euripides G.cc; Sugiri, Dorotheat; Tardón, Adoninac,p; Tiemeier, Henningq,r,s,dd; Tiesler, Carla M. T.ee,ff; Verhulst, Frank C.q; Vrijkotte, Tanjagg,hh; Wilhelm, Michaelii; Brunekreef, Berti,jj; Pershagen, Görankk; Sunyer, Jordia,b,c,ll
Supplemental Author Material
Background: Accumulating evidence from laboratory animal and human studies suggests that air pollution exposure during pregnancy affects cognitive and psychomotor development in childhood.
Methods: We analyzed data from 6 European population-based birth cohorts—GENERATION R (The Netherlands), DUISBURG (Germany), EDEN (France), GASPII (Italy), RHEA (Greece), and INMA (Spain)—that recruited mother–infant pairs from 1997 to 2008. Air pollution levels—nitrogen oxides (NO2, NOx) in all regions and particulate matter (PM) with diameters of <2.5, <10, and 2.5–10 μm (PM2.5, PM10, and PMcoarse, respectively) and PM2.5 absorbance in a subgroup—at birth addresses were estimated by land-use regression models, based on monitoring campaigns performed primarily between 2008 and 2011. Levels were back-extrapolated to exact pregnancy periods using background monitoring sites. Cognitive and psychomotor development was assessed between 1 and 6 years of age. Adjusted region-specific effect estimates were combined using random-effects meta-analysis.
Results: A total of 9482 children were included. Air pollution exposure during pregnancy, particularly NO2, was associated with reduced psychomotor development (global psychomotor development score decreased by 0.68 points [95% confidence interval = −1.25 to −0.11] per increase of 10 μg/m3 in NO2). Similar trends were observed in most regions. No associations were found between any air pollutant and cognitive development.
Conclusions: Air pollution exposure during pregnancy, particularly NO2 (for which motorized traffic is a major source), was associated with delayed psychomotor development during childhood. Due to the widespread nature of air pollution exposure, the public health impact of the small changes observed at an individual level could be considerable.
© 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc
What does "Remember me" mean?
By checking this box, you'll stay logged in until you logout. You'll get easier access to your articles, collections,
media, and all your other content, even if you close your browser or shut down your
To protect your most sensitive data and activities (like changing your password),
we'll ask you to re-enter your password when you access these services.
What if I'm on a computer that I share with others?
If you're using a public computer or you share this computer with others, we recommend
that you uncheck the "Remember me" box.
Data is temporarily unavailable. Please try again soon.
Readers Of this Article Also Read