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Structural changes in the parotid gland of male albino rats following prenatal and postnatal exposure to radiofrequency radiation

Fathy, Amira; Rifaai, Rehab A.; Said, Ahmed; Ragab, Saadia

The Egyptian Journal of Histology: March 2015 - Volume 38 - Issue 1 - p 102–115
doi: 10.1097/01.EHX.0000460811.11670.34
Original articles

Background: There has been an increase in the exposure to the radiofrequency radiation (RFR) emitted by wireless devices. RFR has many side effects, especially at young age. The parotid gland is one of the tissues exposed to high levels of RFR.

Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate morphological changes in the parotid gland of rats following prenatal and postnatal exposure to RFR.

Materials and methods: Thirty male albino rats were divided into three groups: group I, group II, and group III. Group I was divided into the control subgroup and the treated subgroup. The rats of the treated subgroup were exposed to RFR prenatally. Group II was divided into the control subgroup and the treated subgroup. The rats of the treated subgroup were exposed to RFR postnatally for 14 days. Group III was divided into the control subgroup and the treated subgroup. The rats of the treated subgroup were exposed to RFR postnatally for 28 days. The exposed rats were exposed to 900 MHz for 30 min daily. Parotid gland specimens were processed for light, histochemical, and immunocytochemical studies.

Results: Areas of hemorrhage were detected at the exposed group I. Degeneration of the acini and dilated ducts were noticed in the exposed groups II and III. Immunocytochemical study with α-amylase revealed an increase in reactivity in the exposed group I, whereas in the exposed group III the reactivity became faint. The number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells significantly decreased in the exposed groups I and II.

Conclusion: RFR promotes degenerative changes in the parotid salivary glands of the prenatally and postnatally exposed rats. These changes are related to the duration of the exposure. These data support the concept that exposure to RFR has a hazardous effect on the development of the parotid gland of prenatally exposed embryos and young children.

Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, El-Minia University, Minia, Egypt

Correspondence to Rehab A. Rifaai, MD, Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, El-Minia University, Minia, Egypt Tel: +20 100 335 8376; e-mail: rehabrifaai@yahoo.com

Received April 15, 2014

Accepted January 9, 2015

© 2015 The Egyptian Journal of Histology
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