Objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the 9-month results obtained following treatment of peri-implant defects in diabetic patients using either a nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (NHA) or hydroxyapatite (HA).
Patients and methods: Fifteen type II diabetic patients suffering from moderate peri-implantitis (n=20, intrabony defects) were randomly treated with access flap surgery and the application of HA or with access flap surgery and the application of NHA. Clinical and radiographic parameters were recorded at baseline and after 6 and 9 months for the studied groups.
Results: Both groups revealed clinical improvement in mean probing depth reductions (HA: 7.0±1.6 9–4.7±1.05 mm; NHA: 7.88±1.36–3.44±0.52 mm) and increase in mean bone density (HA: 47.39±4.9–54.84±2.98; NHA: 49.26±7.38–66.60±4.24). These clinical and radiographic improvements seemed to be better in the NHA group than in the HA group at the end of the study period.
Conclusion: Within the limits of the present investigation, it can be concluded that both treatment modalities have shown predictable results over the 9-month study period; however, the application of NHA may result in more clinical and radiographic improvement of healing outcomes.