Annual screening for anal cancer is recommended only for HIV patients at increased risk: men who have sex with men, individuals with a history of anogenital warts, and women with cervical dysplasia.
The aim of this study was to examine the screening outcomes between HIV populations with and without these risk factors.
We reviewed the records of all HIV patients referred for anal cytology and high-resolution anoscopy from June 2009 to June 2010. Patients were stratified into an increased-risk group or a standard-risk group.
Of the 329 evaluable patients, 285 (89.8% men, 10.2% women, mean age 46 ± 10 years) were classified to the increased-risk group, whereas 44 (72.7% men, 27.3% women, mean age 52 ± 8 years) were included in the standard-risk group. Male sex, white race, sexual orientation, past and current receptive anal intercourse, noncompliance with condom use, and absence of a new sexual partner were significantly different in the increased-risk group in comparison with the standard-risk group. In the increased-risk group, 187 (66.5%) patients had biopsy-proven dysplasia of which 118 (42.0%) had high-grade disease. In the standard-risk group, 15 (34.9%) patients had biopsy-proven dysplasia of which 7 (16.3%) had high-grade disease. Cytology detected biopsy-confirmed high-grade dysplasia only in 23 of 118 (19.5%) patients in the increased-risk group and in 2 of 7 (28.6%) patients in the standard-risk group. Kappa agreement in detecting high-grade disease was low for both increased-risk and standard-risk groups: 0.16 (95% CI 0.07–0.23) and 0.40 (95% CI 0.02–0.40).
Our study is a chart-based retrospective review of data with a small female population. Histology reports came from 2 different laboratories.
High-grade anal dysplasia was prevalent even among HIV patients who only have standard risk factors. Anal cytology and high-resolution anoscopy have poor agreement. We suggest considering annual screening by using high-resolution anoscopy in addition to cytology for all HIV patients regardless of risk factors.
1 Department of Medicine, Rochester General Hospital, Rochester, New York
2 Anal Dysplasia Clinic, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York
3 Infectious Diseases Division, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York
4 Department of Surgery, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York
5 AIDS Care, Rochester, New York
Poster presentation at the International AIDS Society (IAS) Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention, Rome, Italy, July 17 to 20, 2011.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Correspondence: Alexander O. Mallari, M.D., 1425 Portland Ave, Rochester NY 14621. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org