INTRODUCTION: Over the past 50 years, prophylactic colorectal surgery for patients with familial adenomatous polyposis has evolved as new technologies and ideas have emerged. The aim of this study was to review all the index surgeries for familial adenomatous polyposis performed at our institution to assess the changes in surgical techniques.
METHODS: All index abdominal surgeries for polyposis from 1950 to 2007 were identified through the Polyposis Registry Database. We assigned the patients to prepouch (before 1983), pouch (after 1983), and laparoscopic (after 1991) eras, and analyzed the changes in prophylactic surgery.
RESULTS: Four hundred twenty-four patients were included; 51% were male. Median age at surgery was 26 (range, 9-66) years. In the prepouch era, 97% (66 of 68) of all surgeries and 100% of restorative surgeries were ileorectal anastomosis. After 1983, 70% (54 of 77) of patients with a severe phenotype had an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. After 1991, 110 operations (43%) were laparoscopic (88 ileorectal and 22 ileal pouch-anal anastomosis).
CONCLUSION: Colon surgery for familial adenomatous polyposis has evolved as advances in surgical technique have created more options to reduce the risk of cancer. Current strategy uses polyposis severity and distribution to decide on the surgical option, and laparoscopy to minimize morbidity.